Art Hist 115, week 4 notes
Art Hist 115, week 4 notes ART-HIST 115
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This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tan-Tan Narcisse on Monday September 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ART-HIST 115 at University of Massachusetts taught by Walter Denny in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 101 views. For similar materials see Visual Art, Artists, & Cultures in Fine Art at University of Massachusetts.
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Date Created: 09/19/16
9/26/16 Art History 115 Professor W. Denny Lecture+Reading Notes The Way of Saint James: Romanesque Art and the Frontier with Islam ● The Romanesque Culture and Artistic Style: Relationship between style and culture ● Romanesque ○ Title that describes medieval art/architecture which looks Roman-like ○ 11-12 century or 1000 ce -1150 ce ○ Some places extend well into the 13th century ● Birth ○ Roman Empire (RE) had advance tech/developments ○ Europe has fallen apart which includes RE ■ Destroyed by cataclysm (e.g. Mongol Invasions) ■ “ ” by political corruption ■ Roman Catholic Monastery survives ● Kept alive by bible ● “ ” culture ■ Europe can’t support cities of any size ● People lived near soil ● 90% of people produce their own food ○ Europe is getting back on its feet ( around 1100 ce) ■ Christians were obsessed with making the pilgrimage (hard trip) to Santiago ● Pilgrimage was considered an act of repentance and humility towards God ● Sure enough, there was art on the way leading to the shrine of St. James ● The shrine of St. James was located in Santiago de Compostela in Spain ■ Shrines ● Was considered Sacred ● Contains bodily remains a.k.a relics of Saints (e.g. teeth, hair, bones possessions) ● Worship near shrine ensured granted wish ● Dead Saints intercede with God on behalf of pilgrims/christians ■ Europe ( between 11 & 12 century) ● Monasteries became wealthier ○ Source of wealth were Pilgrimages ○ Especially for monasteries that contains relics of highly esteemed saints ● Monasteries were autonomous ○ Had their own source of agriculture to support others ● Central France : Tournus and Cluny ○ They began to replace ruined buildings ■ Based off of books ■ “ ” remains ● Cassino and St. Benedict: monastery found in Italy ○ The prototype ■ Old fashion ■ Early Basilica with wooden roof ● Cluny (Mid of 12th century): Greatest Monastery of the Middle Ages ○ Autonomous community ○ Beginning of 12th Century, had the largest church in Europe ○ Sent out members to find other monasteries (i.e. create other monasteries) creating a Cluny system ○ Completely destroyed except one through the French Revolution ● Maria Laach in Germany: ○ Surviving Romanesque Monastery ○ Oriented west →east (The idea was to make the Atrium face Jerusalem) ○ Rounds archs ○ Thick walls ○ Small windows ○ Tall towers ○ Groin vaults The Pilgrimage Church of Ste. Foi at Conques: a case study ● Pilgrims/Christians passed Conques for the next Abbey (Agen) as they’re on their way to St. James ○ Agen had the Relics of Ste. Foy ○ Conques lost money in Pilgrimage and tourism ○ As a result stoler remains from Ste. Foy from Agen ■ Used pilgrims donations to pay for cameo-and jewel encrusted gold-and silver reliquary ( contains Ste.Foy’s skull) ■ Reliquary: Recycled head of Roman sculpture ○ Spread of stone vaulting throughout Europe was to provide a comfortably honorable setting for relics ○ And because of enhanced acoustics for the Christian Liturgy Typical Romanesque Church ● Consist of ○ West front ○ Nave ○ Aisles ○ Transepts: arms of the church ○ Crossing: place where transepts and nave intersect ○ Choir: just east of crossing ○ Apse ○ Ambulatory ○ Radiating chapels (Apsidioles): little apses West Front ● Symmetrical ● Heavy ● Peaking roofs ● Made of rubble /concrete ● Sometimes 2 Clochers (bell tower) ● Tympanum : consists of semi-circle with relief sculpture ○ Sculpture refers to judgement day ○ Same scene for every Romanesque church ○ Refers to a society obsessed with sin/judgement ○ Designed to be frightening ○ Interest in spirit is greater than interest in body ○ Antibody of spiritual & cultural environment ● Trumeau : supports the Tympanum ● Jambs: side post of the doors ● Lintel: horizontal beam above doorway ● Voussoirs: wedge shaped blocks that form archivolt and frame of Tympanum and arch The Interior ● Nave ● Choir ● Crossing ● Ambulatory: to get to absidioles ( contains relics of saints) ● Octogonal Dome on Squinches St. Sernin in Toulouse (designed for first Bishop named St. Sernin) Fun Fact: There were Regional differences in Romanesque art during 11th&12th century, an example is noted in north and south of France where each region spoke a slightly different language but had a common ground in Latin for a few words. ● Much larger church but the same style ○ 1080-1120 ○ Designed for pilgrims ○ Much bigger than Ste. Foy ○ Provided additional space for curious pilgrims, worshipers, and liturgical processions. Floor Map of St. Sernin (Regular & Geometrical) ● Crossing tower dates to Gothic and later period ● Crossing square (important module of church) ● Nave bay: ½ crossing square ● Aisle: ¼ crossing square ● Nave is longer ● Side aisles doubled ● Transept ● Ambulatory ● Radiating chapels ● Tribunes(upper galleries) ● Continuous semicircular cut-stone barrel vault ● Groin vaults ● Engaged columns ● Compound piers ● Traversed arches Sculpture ● Sculptors take bits and pieces from past sculptures ( art from Roman Empire) ● Romanesque Sculptures try to tell a story ○ People were illiterate ● Religious ● Found on churches ● Churches were rich so they could afford it Tympanum and other sculptures at Autun “ the work of Gislebertus” ● The artist who put his name/signature on the sculpture Late Romanesque ● Vezelay: Abbey of Church of St. Mary Magdalene ○ Tympanum: about Jesus sending his disciples out. ○ Later Romanesque ■ Groin vault ■ Pretty arches 9/28/16 Art History 115 Professor W. Denny Lecture+Reading Notes Gothic Architecture and Towns ( 1150-1500 in same parts of Europe ) Background: The Medieval Town ● Middle of 10th century ● By 950, towns were small (very few towns of any size) ● People live on land ● Restriction of tech ● Making just enough for food (very few towns of any size) Late Medieval Time ● Monasteries lose their steam ● Transfers to towns ○ Towns have walls ( Protection) ○ Town set-up by feudal lord (in charge) ○ Towns reflects societal organization of set-up ○ Small groups of extended families competed in business and building structure ( tallest building in town) ○ Tall building = very important ● People knew the language of bells ( from bell towers) ○ It rang for: ■ Church ■ Time ■ Funeral ■ Emergency ■ Invasion Middle Ages ● Abrupt transition from town→country Medieval city ● Once large enough obtains a large church ● An Important town has a seat for important member of church ○ Bishop was nominally in charge of church in town ● Throne church is Cathedral ● Responsibility of building was in hands of clergymen a.k.a. chapter ○ The oldest member of chapter was the spokesperson or dean ● Continuous tension between bishop and chapter The Gothic Cathedral:Religious Edifice and Civic Symbol (takes in secular prominence) ● Church was symbol of town ● Rivalry amongst towns ○ Made government weak ○ King was not strong ● Lords are not in charge anymore...people bought their freedom ● Town is runned by rich people Ile de France ● Some of the ingenious innovations in Gothic Architecture came from Ile de France ● Outside of building is complicated ● Bigger ● Expensive ● Hard to make/build 5 engineering innovations 1. Pointed arch ● Rounded arch must be half as high as wide, pointed arches are the same height with various widths (creating long/large bays) 2. Ribbed vault ● Two pointed barrel vaults intersect ■ Strong ■ Light weight ■ Process is slow ■ Limited tech ■ Force is concentrated on four corners of bay ■ Protected by wooden roof, covered with lead 3. The flying Buttress (pier plus struts) ● Piers are some distance away from church ● Buttress placed in between vault and stone ● Windows are allowed to be large, because walls aren’t thick ● Buttress cancels the outward force of ribbed groin vault (Roof of Gothic cathedral = charpente) 4. Tracery: spider-webs of stone reinforced by bits of metal ● Gives support to large stained glass windows ● Rose windows ■ Evokes Virginity of Virgin Mary 5. The Spire ( arrow in French) ● Made out of oak ● Covered with lead ● Susceptible to lightning and fire Difference between Gothic and Romanesque Gothic Romanesque ● 40% of weight is in the ground ● ? ● 10-15% of stone ● 25% masonry ● Fortress like ● Fortress like ● Ribbed vault ● Barrel vault ● large windows ● Small windows ● Society-wide change on outlook ● Focus on spirit rather than body ○ Optimistic ○ Pessimistic ○ Self-confident ○ Obsessed with not committing sin ○ Richer ○ Obsessed with judgement ○ Flexible ○ Thick walls, Dark ○ Tech. innovation ○ Lack of Tech. Innovations ○ Stronger, less material ○ Same strength, more material ○ Cheaper & easier to build ○ Expensive & harder to build David Macaulay’s Drawing from Cathedral This book explains the engineering behind cathedrals. It is advised to take a look through this book. This book is considered graphic and educational, as well as suitable for this class. . 9/30/16 Art History 115 Professor W. Denny Lecture+Reading Notes Chartres Cathedral Most famous ● Farthest from paris ○ 90 miles away ● First gothic cathedral ○ Abbey St. Denise is the first place where we see extensive architecture ● Took too long to build ○ Has entire development of gothic (different aspects from different parts of the gothic period) ○ 1157 first gothic spire ○ After 1500 last gothic spire ● Built on ruins of temple ○ A druian temple ● Chartres was an important centers of learning in early middle ages in France, it wasn’t until the rise of the university of Paris, did Chartres became the second most important place in France. The original church was a Romanesque church. ● They tried to use as much stone instead of wood as much as possible ○ 4th Version of the Cathedral burned done in 1194 ○ Last version was completed in 1260 with the exception of the North Spire which was built in 1507 ○ Cathedrals are usually built from east -west (to get altar and choir in place) ■ Chartres is the exception ○ With the trial and error of building a Gothic Cathedral, designers are learning how to make builds fire-resistant using less wood as much as possible ○ Arches are more round than pointed ○ Towers of walls are very heavy ■ South tower was completed in 1144 ○ Buttress is very thick ■ Over Engineered because of unfamiliar tech ○ Plate tracery ■ Looks like a wall ■ A plate of stone that looks like it was hollowed out ■ Used great deal of metal to hold things together ● West Front completed in 1155 -West Portal ○ Tympanum ■ Judgement day sculpture is less threatening ■ Jesus with Mandola ■ Two symbols denoting biographers of christ ■ No picturesque heaven/hell ○ Sculptures on West Portal is of Romanesque style ■ Small heads ■ Tall bodies ■ No weight to bodies underneath drapery ■ Figures stand still ■ Females/ males (all kings and queens) from the bible ➢ Not saints ○ They have halo’s because of their deeds ➢ Old testament figures ○ The south spire ■ True marvel ■ Heavy Romanesque base ■ Gets lighter towards the top ■ Starts off as an octagon, then transitions into 16-sided polygon ○ Buttress piers (cathedral was well buttressed) ■ Very heavy ■ Large windows ■ Arcade between buttress ■ 3 struts coming from each of the buttress piers ○ Clerestory Windows ■ Lancet (single pointed window) ■ Stained glass (looks grey and dark from outside) ○ Metal Roof (lead) ■ Under the Roof ■ Made of wood (oak) ○ Trusses ■ Just above the vault ■ Stone vault 40 ft across ○ Royal portal/west facade (1155) ○ South and North portals of Chartres ( 1220-1230) ● South Portal ○ Gothic sculptures start to pop ( more Roman than Romanesque) ○ Figures from the old testament (predictor of what could happen in new testament) ■ Melchizedek ■ Abraham with Isaac ■ Moses ■ Sammuel ■ David ■ Drapery itself has something to do with body underneath ○ Martyrs Portal (northside): ■ 1220-1230 ■ St.Theodore ■ St.Stephen ■ St. Lawrence ■ Pope Clement ○ South and north portals done by different artists ■ Evident in the way specific features of body are shown (e.g. nose, lips, eyes, etc.) ○ Sculptors are regaining skills that were lost but observing bits and pieces of art from the golden period ■ reappearance of Classical idea (which was lost) ○ Depiction of human body is moving away from being spiritualized/abstract human body ○ Gradually fused into this formal depiction of human body, moving towards earthy weightines ○ 95ft high nave ○ Edges of piers ■ Columnetes: carvings of long graceful skinny columns basically vertical moldings ○ Nave arcade at the bottom ○ Triforium ○ Windows of clerestory ○ Springing of ribs of ribbed vaults ○ Bay has an X, ■ Divided by two parts of ribs into four parts ○ With Rib vault ■ Smooth visual transitions ● West Front Tracery ○ Armature (frame): something that supports stained glass ○ Matrix: series of clear lines (pieces of led) that hold the glass together ■ Squares are made of iron ■ Glass squares hung in place ■ Central window tells life of Jesus Christ ➢ Most people are illiterate ➢ People read story through pictures ➢ The windows are pretty high up (which seems impractical) ■ Black paint was used for smaller features/details on glass ■ From bottom to top is an account of Jesus’ Life ■ Only Cathedral where stain glass survives ( they took down and stored the glass) ➢ French Revolution destroyed stained glass of most of the other churches ➢ Same thing in WWII ○ Bar Tracery ■ North transept Rose window ( more red and warm colors) vice versa with South ■ Stain-glass: glass, lead, and iron ○ Stained- window must be maintained ○ Patronage of the local guilds paid for the it creation/maintenance ■ Guilds such as: ■ Carpenter ■ Blacksmith ■ Florist ■ Textiles ■ Brewer (Alcohol) ■ Etc. ■ Signatures of different guilds were incorporated into the stained glass
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