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Week 5 Notes- Chapters 26 and 27

by: Kaeli

Week 5 Notes- Chapters 26 and 27 BIOL 102 001

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Covers Bacteria and Archea as well as phylogeny and taxonomy. 9/13 and 9/15
Biological Principles II
Mihaly Czako
Class Notes
Bacteria, archea, Phylogeny, taxonomy, Biology
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kaeli on Monday September 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 102 001 at University of South Carolina taught by Mihaly Czako in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views.


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Date Created: 09/19/16
Chapter 26 Notes  Phylogeny is not a form of classification o The evolutionary history of an organism o Shared ancestor indicates homology  Genetic similarity   Phenotypic similarities o Need to differ between analogy and homology  Analogy is from convergent evolution  Structures called homoplaises if analogous  Can be determined by computer analysis of DNA  Shows same sequences  When coincidental, they’re analogous o Groups  Paraphyletic groups  Clade and one from a close decent   Polyphyletic group  Group plus one current species from a distant ancestor without the  ancestor that connects them  Closer to convergent evolution  Cladistics­ group by common decent   Clade­ group including a species and all of its decedents o Also called a monophyletic group  o Shared characters  Shared ancestral­ originated from ancestor  Shared derived­ clade specific trait o Tree terms  Branch point­ where lineages diverge  Smallest group to the far right of the tree is a taxon  Polytomy­ More than two organisms with a common ancestor  Sister taxa­ 2 organisms with a same common ancestor o Trees do not:  Show phenotypic similarities   Show when a species evolved  Show how much change occurred  o Trees do:  Show genetic similarity o Why its important   Helps to understand biodiversity  Genetic history & Change o Histroy  DNA that codes for rRNA mutates slowly and helps to find branching  points from long ago  mtDNA evolves rapidly and is used to explore recent evolutionary  divergence o Molecular clocks help make assumptions about molecular change  Know that DNA replication misses 1 in a million pairs  Use constant rates of evolution help estimate time of change  Example: Used to find the origins of HIV in humans  Taxonomy is the process of classifying  o Systematics classifies organisms based on evolutionary relationships o At first, everything was either plant or animal o Later was five: Monera, Protista, Plantae, Fungi, Animalia   Subgroups of Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya  o Suggests that Archaea and Eukarya are more closely related than to bacteria o Reproduction leads to horizontal gene transfer (if normal) o  Chapter 26 Notes  Prokaryotes  o Structure  No nuclear membrane  Most are very small  Very populous  Common shapes spheres rods and spirals  Surface structures that stick   Exhibit taxis   Move relative to a stimulus  Flagella are a common structure o Not analogous o Made of different compounds o Divided into Bacteria and Archaea   Unicellular o Likely first life  o Can create endospores  Survive harsh conditions for centuries o Have circular, simpler DNA  A single circular chromosome  Nucleoid region  Smaller rings called plasmids (Bacteria) o Reproduction  Binary fission  1 minute ­3 hours  Not sexual, no recombination in a meiotic sense  Genetic diversity  Rapid reproduction  Mutation  Genetic recombination o DNA moves between two cells via transformation,  transduction, and conjugation o Transformation: uptake of DNA from environment o Transduction: movement of genes by bacteriophages  (viruses) o Conjugation: Similar to sexual reproduction, one cell  attaches to another by a pilus, pulls it closer and transfers  DNA  The presence of a pilus requires a gene for it  Called F factor or F plasmid  Occasionally part of the chromosome  R plasmids carry antibiotic resistance o Metabolic diversity  Photoautotrophs  Make ATP from light  Chemoautotrophs  Extract energy from harsh chemicals  Photoheterotrophy  Light and others  Chemoheterotrophy   Chemicals and others  Oxygen  Obligate aerobes o Require O2  Obligate anaerobes o Poisoned by oxygen o Use fermentation  Facultative anaerobes  o With or without O2  Nitrogen Fixation  N2­> NH3 (ammonia)  o Prokaryotic diversity   Some plants have an organ specifically for nitrogen fixing prokaryotes  Keep oxygen out   Rhizobium   Handful of soil may contain 10,000 species of prokaryotes  Horizontal gene transfer obscures root of tree of life  Agrobacterium produces tumors in plants and is used in genetic  engineering  Transfers genes into plants o Inter­domain transfer o Without prokaryotes, prospects for any other life would be dim.   Chemical recycling   Symbiotic relationships  Bacteria only o Have cell wall (ONLY Bacteria)  Made of peptidoglycan (vs cellulose or chitin)  Gram­positive bacteria have simpler walls with a large amount of  peptidoglycan  Gram­negative have less peptidoglycan and an outer membrane that can  be negative (added lipopolysaccharide)  More likely to be antibiotic resistant  A protein layer called a capsule covers many prokaryotes o Some have folds in membrane that serve a function  Still NOT organelles  Archaea o Similar to both Eukarya and Bacteria  Closer to Eukarya  More shared characteristics o Severe conditions  Methanogens  Produce methane  Poisoned by O2  Halophiles  High salt content  Thermophiles  High temperature


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