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Week 3 Part 1 notes for history

by: Landry Notetaker

Week 3 Part 1 notes for history History 221

Marketplace > University of Louisiana at Lafayette > History > History 221 > Week 3 Part 1 notes for history
Landry Notetaker
University of Louisiana at Lafayette

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These notes will be covered in the midterm
History of the United States to 1877
Ian W. Beamish
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Landry Notetaker on Monday September 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 221 at University of Louisiana at Lafayette taught by Ian W. Beamish in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see History of the United States to 1877 in History at University of Louisiana at Lafayette.

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Date Created: 09/19/16
Lecture Guide – Week 3 Class 1 – Northern Colonies in the Seventeenth Century Questions: • What role did religion play in this region? • The government revolved around religion • Who were the Puritans? • Spent the early years of the 1600s struggling in England and Europe • Worked constantly to try and change what religion in England looked like • Want religion to be closer to scripture • How did the Salem Witch Trials reveal a changing religious climate? • The older generation is close to their religion • Religion is not a big part of the life of the new generation The Reformation in Europe (1500s)  The Catholic Church completely dominated religious life o Every western country in Europe was Catholic English Reformation • Individuals in the Catholic church • Becoming corrupt • Selling of indulgences  • Focused on worldly matters and not scripture  • Led the way to Protestant Religions • Martin Luther • England breaks from the Catholic Church th • King Henry the 8  wanted a divorce from his wife • Catholic church said no • King’s solution • Separate from the Catholic Church • Founded the Church of England • Difference from Catholic Church • King Henry the 8  was at the top of the  hierarchy; not the Pope • Many thought he would change  church documents but he didn’t  • Conflicts between the King and more radical Protestants (Puritans) Puritans • Spent the early years of the 1600s struggling in England and Europe • Worked constantly to try and change what religion in England looked like • Want religion to be closer to scripture • Wanted to follow the radical Reformation from Europe, rather than the moderate English  Reformation • Thought Church of England was too Catholic • Congregationalist (no authority structure like bishops… each Congregation set rules) • Most Puritans tried to remain in the Church of England and “purify” it from within • Felt England/Europe was too corrupt and wanted to start a new society in the New World • Couldn’t live a proper Godly life in England Pilgrims • First to come to new world (before Puritans) • Like the Puritans, they wanted to separate from the Church of England • In 1620 they became the first English colonists in New England • Plymouth Colony • Coming across on Mayflower • Come for religious reasons • Mayflower Compact Massachusetts Bay Company (1629) • Gets a grant of land in New England • Different mission: • Firmly believe most important mission is religion • Goal: • Set up a new pure puritan religious community • Largely Puritans • Colonize what would today be New England and Upstate New York • John Winthrop • Leads Puritans • Prominent Puritan lawyer • Governor of colony • 1630: 11 ships and 700 colonists set sail for New England • Arbella Sermon/“A Model of Christian Charity” • Famous document in American history • Main purpose: • Tell all Puritans why they are coming to New England and what they are  going to do there • Emphasize the goals of their new colonies • Lays out what becomes a very popular vision of what the US stands for  and has still been used to this day • Winthrop’s themes show up in American society and culture • What is a “city upon a hill”? • Example to other societies of a better place • Their religion will make them the example to others  • Strong emphasis on selflessness • Their religion allows them to do things better than others • Failing  • Throw away a good opportunity • They entered into a covenant with God to be the chosen  example of a perfection religious society • Failing would mean upsetting God • Goal: • Create a society that is closer to their view of Christianity  • Why would this image/ idea have such a lasting impact? • American values need to spread • Freedom • Moral example to the rest of the world • Can you think of any examples of how the US today thinks of itself as a “city  upon a hill”? • Unique nation • Important moment of trying to development an American identity • Founded ideas of the US • What would the new society look like? • Winthrop attempts to relate his teachings to those practical concerns: a  group of people brought together for various reasons hopes to profit from  the New World and seeks to escape religious persecution in Europe. They  must cling together in a time of troubles. To foster the unifying love  necessary for this public life, a government that addresses both the secular  and spiritual sides to this community must be formed. This government,  like those of Plato and More, must have certain powers over its citizens,  since "care of the publique must oversway all private respects, by which,  not only conscience, but meare civill pollicy, dothe binde us" (p. 5). Such  a public life cannot be manifested in symbolic acts such as weekly church  attendance; it must be witnessed in everyday life. Like a contract, this  social covenant cannot be broken without risking the wrath of God.  Failure to build this ideal community would be a shipwreck ­ a powerful  metaphor, given the location of this address (John Winthrop, A Modell of  Christian Charity (1630)) Seventeenth­Century New England • Small towns and farms • Centered on family and religion • Local government • Deeply religious • Wealthy, free people come as families • different than Virginia  Ideas of Land Ownership • Private Property and “Improvement” defined English understandings • Communal use defined many indigenous understandings Growth in New England • Massive migration from 1630­1640 • Little migration after, but continued population growth • Who came to New England compared to southern colonies? • Changing attitude to religion Salem Witch Trials (1692­1693) o Massachusetts o Divided Puritan Society o Huge numbers of people taking strong stands o Religious state where overwhelming people attend Puritan churches and where much of  their life is centered on religion  o Time of uphevel and violence o State of disarray o Not that far from the front of a major war o Influx of refugees  o What was currently happening o New minister (huge say in peoples’ daily lives)  Not well liked  Seen as greedy and overly strict  Constantly getting into arguments with members of his congregation o Puritans and Beliefs  Viewed many aspects of religion as things that would take visual forms o Rumors of Witchcraft o Witches are sending a ghostly form of themselves to physically attack people at  night  New England in the late 1600s  Young people accuse adults (mostly women) of being witches  Daughter and niece of the new minister (ages 9­11) start saying they are beign  tormented by witches  Screaming and other acts would occur  Couldn’t be stopped  Minister calls local doctor  Doctor couldn’t figure it out  Says it was probably supernatural  Another girl was “tormented”  Magistrates started getting involved   The accusers are from well off and well connected families  The accused are poor and not well known  Girls are pushed to say specific names of tormenters  Three local women  Tituba  Enslaved who takes care fo the girls and told them  supernatural stories  Sarah Good  Homeless beggar  Sarah Osborne  Strange woman who is scorned by many in society  All have in common:   None of them are seen as Godly Puritan women  No support or defense  Tituba confesses to being a witch under pressure  Both Sarahs insist that they are innocent and are executed right away  Expanding of Charges  More and more charges are being laid  Vast are men and women  Most accusations are made by women  Accusations are heard around Salem  Dozens and hundreds are being accused  If a person refuses to confess, they are instantly executed  As word spreads of the trials, prominent people start to attend  Big issue: whether you can convict people without concrete evidence  Spectral Evidence  a witness testimony that the accused person's spirit (spectral form) appeared to  the accuser in a dream   prominent leaders justify use of spectral evidence   Major conflict for Puritans in New England  20 executed and hundreds accused  After the fact, many realized it had been mass hysteria  Governor of Massachusetts ended trail saying that spectral evidence wasn’t  enough to convict a person  Probably ended it because his wife was accused of being a witch  Theories  Found that if you mapped where all the accusers and accused lived, they were  neighbors  Settling local disputes  Biological   Fungus (ergot) grows on rye  Crop grown in colony  Can make people hallucinate   PTSD  People talking to a lot of refugees   Trials represent a crisis in religion  The deeply religious were giving way to generations that as a whole were less  invested in the Christianity and its practices  Northern Colonies in 1700  Looked dramatically different from southern colonies  Included New England, New York, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey  Places like Maine were still claimed by Massachusetts Bay  The white population in the northern colonies outnumbered the Chesapeake and British  Caribbean  Older aged, wealthier, more even balance between male and female  Vast majority of European population lived on the strip of the Atlantic Ocean Resources: 


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