Human Anatomy I Skeletal System
Human Anatomy I Skeletal System BIO 2440
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katelyn Farris on Monday September 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 2440 at William Carey University taught by Mr. Griffis in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy I in Biology at William Carey University.
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Date Created: 09/19/16
Skeletal System Skeletal System Functions -Support -Storage -Blood cell production -Protection -Leverage (movement) Parts of the skeletal system -Includes: -Bones -Cartilage -Tendons -Ligaments Bone Shapes -Long bone: longer than it is wide -Ex. Humerus, femur -Short bone: about the same width and length -Ex. Carpals, tarsals -Flat bone: made of thin sheets of bone -Ex. Sternum, occipital bone -Irregular bone: have complex shapes -Ex. Vertebrae, hipbone -Sesamoid: seed shaped -Ex. Patella Structure of a long bone -Diaphysis: shaft -Epiphysis: end of a long bone -Metaphysis: region between diaphysis and epiphysis -Epiphyseal plate (growth plate): cartilage disc that can continue to grow until puberty ends -ossify: turns to bone -once it turns to bone it is called the epiphyseal line -Medullary cavity: cavity in the diaphysis that contains fat called yellow marrow -Compact bone: outer layer of the bone -Spongy bone: porous inner bone -Red marrow: located in the spongy bone; produces all blood cells -Yellow marrow: adipose tissue Bone membranes -Periosteum -Membrane that covers outer surfaces of bones -Fibrous connective tissue -Where tendons and ligaments attach -Contain some bone cells -Endosteum -Covers internal surfaces of bones -Connective tissue -Includes bone cells -With more exercise bones will get thicker -With less exercise bones will get thinner -If the cells are adding tissue to the bone they’re called: osteoblasts -If the cells are losing tissue they are called: osteoclasts -Osteoporosis Structure of a flat bone -Outer surface is compact bone -Center is made of spongy bone Ossification -Endochondrial ossification: the cartilage turning to bone -Intramembranous ossification: membranes turning to bone -Interstitional: ossification starts from the inside -Appositional: ossification starts from the outside Major divisions of the Skeleton -Axial Skeleton -Down the midline -Includes: -Skull -Vertebral column -Rib cage -Appendicular Skeleton -Includes: -Shoulders -Hips -Arms -Legs -Hands -Feet Axial Skeleton: Skull -Cranium and facial bones -Cranium is just the part that contains the brain; everything else is facial bone -8 Cranium Bones - Frontal Bone - Two Parietal Bones - Two Temporal - One Occipital - One Sphenoid - One Ethmoid Cranial Bones -Frontal -Location: anterior part of the cranium -Forms superior parts of the orbits -Articulates with the parietal bones at the coronal suture -Contains the frontal sinuses (paranasal sinuses) -Superior orbital foramen/notch -nerves and blood vessels come through this hole onto the forehead -Parietal -Location: most of the superior part of the cranium -the two parietal bones are joined by the sagittal suture -joins the occipital bone by the lambdoid suture -joins the temporal bone by the temporal suture -Occipital -Forms the posterior and most of the inferior parts of the cranium -Includes the foramen magnum which is the large hole where the spinal cord exits the skull -Occipital Condyles: a bump on either side of the foramen magnum that articulates with the atlas vertebrae -External Occipital Protuberance: attachment site for muscles -Nuchal line: two horizontal lines (superior and inferior) that are associated with the external occipital protuberance; also where muscles attach to -Temporal -Forms most of the lateral aspects of the cranium -Includes the Zygomatic process that attaches to the Zygomatic bone -Mandibular fossa: depressions on the temporal bones that articulate with the mandibular condyles -External acoustic meatus: ear canal that leads to ear cavities -Mastoid process is where muscles attach to turn the head -Styloid process tiny point where several muscles attach -Sphenoid -Bat or butterfly shaped -Forms part of the base, sides, and front of the cranium -Keystone bone: connected to all the other cranial bones; ties them all together -Contains sinuses -Sella turcica: contains and protects the pituitary gland -Greater and lesser wings -Lateral and medial pterygoid plates of the pterygoid process -Ethmoid -Cribiform plate with olfactory foramena is a part of the ethmoid bone -these holes allow the nerves for our sense of smell go through these holes -Crista Galli- flat piece of bone that sticks off of the cribriform plate -Perpendicular plate forms the superior part of the nasal cavity -Superior and middle nasal conchae -Contains sinuses -Form part of the orbits Skull -Facial Bones -Maxilla - Two Zygomatic Bones - Two Lacrimal Bones - Palatine Bone - Vomer - Two Inferior Nasal Conchae - Two Nasal - Mandible Maxilla -Two bones fused together during development -Forms upper jaw, central face, and lower orbit -Holds upper teeth -Inferior orbital foramen: holes below the orbit where nerves and blood vessels come through -Contains sinuses -Palatine process of the maxilla forms the anterior 2/3s of the hard palate -If the two bones do not fuse in fetal development a cleft palate is formed Zygomatic (2) -Located in the cheeks -Forms the sides of the orbit -Articulate with the Zygomatic processes of the temporal bones Lacrimal (2) -In the medial orbit next to the nose -Lacrimal foramen is where the duct goes through that allows tears to go in the nasal cavity Palatine Bones (2 fused) -Forms the posterior 1/3 of the hard palate -Forms small part of orbits and nasal cavity Vomer -Forms the inferior part of the nasal septum Inferior Nasal Conchae (2) -Separate bones by themselves -Form the lowermost scroll shaped bones inside the nasal cavity Nasal Bones (2) -Forms or support the bridge of the nose Mandible -Jawbone -Has mandibular condyles which are rounded bumps that articulate with the mandibular fossa of the temporal bone -TMJ (Temporomandibular joint) -Holds the lower teeth -Mental foramen- holes on the front -Mandibular foramen- holes on the side -Coronoid process, mandibular notch -Mandibular body- horizontal part -Mandibular ramus- vertical parts -Mandibular angle- parts in between the body and ramus Hyoid Bone -Inferior to the mandible -Not connected to any other bone -U-shaped -Above the voice box -Acts as a base for the tongue -Vital for speaking and swallowing The Vertebral Column (spine) -Flexible -Twenty-six bones in an adult (33 fetal) -Supports trunk -Surrounds and protects the delicate spinal cord Division and Curvatures -Curvatures -Cervical and lumbar concave posteriorly -Thoracic and sacral are convex posteriorly -Divisions (How many?) -Cervical: #7 -Thoracic: #12 -Lumbar: #5 -Sacrum: 5 fused together -Coccyx: 4 fused together Spinal Curvature Abnormalities -Scoliosis: lateral curvature -Kyphosis: hunchback -Lordosis: swayback Intervertebral Discs -Between vertebra -Cushions and allows movement -Two parts: 1. Nucleus pulposus -Middle part of the disc and more flexible 2. Annulus fibrosus -The whole outside of the disc and is much tougher -Herniated disc: disc squishes out of its normal position and presses against a nerve Vertebra general structure -Body: disc-shaped anterior portion -Spinous process: process sticking out posteriorly -Transverse process: stick out laterally -Muscles attach to the processes -Articulating surfaces (facets): surfaces on the top and bottom of each vertebrae where each vertebrae attaches to the one above and below it -Vertebral foramen: hole through each vertebra that contains the spinal cord -Intervertebral foramen: hole between each vertebra -Lamina: area between the transverse process and spinous process -Pedicle: area between the body and the transverse process Cervical vertebra structure -Smallest -Have transverse foramina -Spinous process structure is bifid (only C2-C6) -C7 -Not bifid -Looks almost like a thoracic vertebrae -The vertebra prominens Special cervical vertebra -Atlas, C1 -Articulates superiorly with the occipital condyles -Articulates inferiorly with the axis or C2 -The joint between the atlas and axis allows the head to move side to side -The joint between the atlas and occipital bone allows the head to move up and down -Has anterior and posterior tubercles instead of a body and spinous process -Axis, C2 -Articulates superiorly with atlas -Has an odontoid process (dens), which is a large bump that sticks off of it Thoracic vertebra structure -12 thoracic vertebras -Spinous process points downward sharply -Medium-sized -Located in the chest -Coastal facets: attachment sites for the ribs Lumbar vertebra structure -5 lumbar vertebra -Largest vertebra -Spinous process is hatchet shaped -Large bodies Sacrum & Coccyx -Sacrum -5 fused vertebra -Articulates superiorly with L5 -Articulates inferiorly with the coccyx -Articulates laterally with the ileum -Coccyx -4 fused vertebra -Articulates with the sacrum Bony Thorax (rib cage) -Thoracic vertebra posteriorly -Ribs -From thoracic vertebra to sternum, stop short and are connected to sternum by hyaline cartilage (coastal cartilage) -The first 7 ribs connect directly to the sternum by their own piece of cartilage and are true ribs -The ribs 8-12 connect indirectly or not at all to the sternum are false ribs -Ribs 11 and 12 don’t connect at all and are floating ribs -Sternum -Flat plate in front of bony thorax -Made of manubrium -Body -Xyphoid process The Appendicular Skeleton Pectoral Girdle -Consists of 4 bones that connect the arms to the torso -In shoulder area -Includes: the scapula and clavicle Scapula -Shoulder blade -Connects to the clavicle at the acromion process -Depression on the lateral part called the glenoid cavity which articulates with the head of the Humerus -Triangular shaped -Spine: raised ridge on the posterior part -Above the spine is the supraspinous fossa -Below the spine is the infraspinous fossa -Coracoid process: bump on the anterior part of the scapula Clavicle -Collarbone -Connects scapula to sternum -Sternal end articulates with the manubrium -Acromial end articulates with the acromial process -the flatter end -S-shaped Humerus -Located in the brachial region (upper arm) -Head of the humerus articulates with the glenoid cavity of the scapula -The distal end of the humerus has two structures 1. Capitulum: articulates with the head of the radius 2. Trochlea: articulates with the trochlear notch of the ulna -Deltoid tuberosity: bump on the lateral diaphysis of the humerus Ulna and Radius -Radius -Lateral -Head articulates with the Capitulum -Allows rotational movement -Articulates distally with the carpals -Ulna -Medial -Trochlear notch articulates with the trochlea of the humerus -Allows flexion of the arm Carpals, Metacarpals, Phalanges -Carpals -Wrist bones -8 carpals, each with its own -Metacarpals - Hand bones -Phalanges -Finger and toe bones -Proximal, middle, distal Coxal Bones, 2 (hip bones) -Made of 3 fused bones -Forms the pelvic girdle with lumbar vertebrae -Contains a socket the acetabulum that articulates with the head of the femur -Obturator foramen: large hole -Pubic Symphasis: joint that joins the coxal bones anteriorly Ilium -Largest of the three bones that form the coxal bone -Superior part -Contains the greater sciatic notch -Articulates medially with the sacrum Ischium -Inferior posterior part of the coxal bone -Ischial tuberosity: large bump that muscles attach to Pubis and Pubic Symphasis -Anterior and inferior part -Anterior joint is the pubic Symphasis Femur and Patella -Thighbone -Articulates proximally with the acetabulum -Articulates distally with the tibia and the patella -Patella: knee cap Tibia and Fibula -Tibia -Shinbone -Medial malleolus of the tibia—medial ankle process -Articulates proximally with the femur -Articulates distally with the talus -Medial lower leg bone -Fibula -Lateral lower leg bone -Lateral malleolus—lateral ankle process Tarsals -Form the posterior foot -7 tarsals per foot -Calcaneus: heel bone -Talus – articulates with the tibia Metatarsals and Phalanges -5 metatarsals per foot -Anterior foot bones -Toes are phalanges Fontanels -Places in a baby’s skull where there are no bones yet -Anterior fontanel: the biggest one and most likely to receive damage -4 spots all together Auditory Ossicles -Transmit the sound waves from the ear drum into the ear
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