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ANT 304 Textbook Notes Ch. 2

by: Sena Sarikaya

ANT 304 Textbook Notes Ch. 2 ANT 304

Marketplace > University of Texas at Austin > Anthropology > ANT 304 > ANT 304 Textbook Notes Ch 2
Sena Sarikaya

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About this Document

These notes focus on specific pages from chapter two of the textbook Archaeology and Humanity's Story by Olszewski (2016).
Intro Archaeol Stds: Prehist
Dr. Valdez
Class Notes
Introduction, Intro to Archaeology, Archaeology, textbook, notes, Chapter
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sena Sarikaya on Monday September 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANT 304 at University of Texas at Austin taught by Dr. Valdez in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Intro Archaeol Stds: Prehist in Anthropology at University of Texas at Austin.


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Date Created: 09/19/16
Textbook Notes Ch. 2 Ch. 2 pg. 37­39 I. A Word About Classification ­interested in relationship btwn things ­taxonomy: divides animal & plant groups into categ. based on evol.  relationship ­Hominoidea: superfamily taxonomic category that includes gibbons,  orangutans, gorillas, common chimp, modern human ­chimps & humans in Homininae ­Panin: chimp genus ­Hominin: human genus ­genus: taxonomic category w/ all similar species w/ common ances. ­species: interbreeds; natural pop. reproductively isolated from other pop. ­Homo sapiens: modern human ­only species in genus ­Australopiths: earliest ancestor  ­subtribe of Australopithecina ­2 species in Panin ­Pan troglodytes (chimp) ­Pan paniscus (bonobo) II.  Bipedalism & The Earliest Hominins  ­bipedal: use of lower limbs to move around when walking/ running ­bowl­like pelvis (hip bones) ­angling of femur (upper leg bone), etc. ­foramen magnum: opening in skull where spinal column joins the head ­directly beneath skull in biped ­recognizing earliest biped is difficult ­fossil record only has teeth & frag. of bone ­painstakingly put back together pg. 41­43 A. Why is Bipedalism Important? ­most early hominins = small ­difference in size ­sexual dimorphism: dif. btwn F & M ­3.8­4.5 ft. ­65­175 lbs. ­most w/ large brains comp. to chimps                                ­most w/ low, slopping forehead, flat cheekbones & prognathic faces ­prognathic: lower face projects outward        ­bipedalism a. Advantages of Bipedalism ­increased terrestrial habitats ­free hands = manipulate objects & make tools ­carry objects, infants, food, throw things ­better able to withstand heat stresses ­ex. open habitat in grassland of Africa ­thermoregulation ­less body surface exposed to sun’s rays ­further away from heat accum. by ground surface ­exposed to wind/breeze to cool off ­problem= most early hominin suggest arboreal living (tree living) ­energy & efficiency advantages ­the extent of it is debated ­constant visual awareness of predators ­carrying things leads to male parental care pg. 48­50 III. Tool Use & Manufacture ­biology & behavior can be reconstructed based on…  ­skeletal anatomy ­specialized studies of mech. of locomotion ­diets ­until recently most data = flaked stone tolls ­tools predate this b/c chimp ­unlikely to preserve… ­modified twigs ­rocks & branches ­bone tools (found in Swarthkrans South Africa) ­dig termite mounds ­older than sites w/ stones ­behavior is older, once w/ organizational material A. Stone Tools ­until 2015, earlies record indirect ­Dikka (Ethiopia) 3.39 mil. yres ago ­animal bone w/ stone tool cuts ­area of Au. Afranensis ­stone tools not found so not sure ­newly reported stone tools (3.3 mil. y.a.) in Kenya ­deliberate stone artifacts found ­Gona (Eithiopia) (2.6­2.5 mil. y.a.) ­Oldowan: earliest known stone tools [until recently] ­2.6 mil. y.a. ­choppers, flakes, hammer stones, scrapers ­represents cognitive leap ­recognition of properties of stone ­some break to be sharp ­knapping ­use hammer stone to hit another  cobble so sharp edge flakes detach ­not all stones can be knapped ­early hominins recognized types ­recognize angle important for correct detachment ­understand value of sharp edge ­know where to look to find right stone ­carry the stone or the core & flake to where needed ­carried 15+ km.  ­planning & foresight


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