ANT 304 Textbook Notes Ch. 2
ANT 304 Textbook Notes Ch. 2 ANT 304
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sena Sarikaya on Monday September 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANT 304 at University of Texas at Austin taught by Dr. Valdez in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Intro Archaeol Stds: Prehist in Anthropology at University of Texas at Austin.
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Date Created: 09/19/16
Textbook Notes Ch. 2 Ch. 2 pg. 3739 I. A Word About Classification interested in relationship btwn things taxonomy: divides animal & plant groups into categ. based on evol. relationship Hominoidea: superfamily taxonomic category that includes gibbons, orangutans, gorillas, common chimp, modern human chimps & humans in Homininae Panin: chimp genus Hominin: human genus genus: taxonomic category w/ all similar species w/ common ances. species: interbreeds; natural pop. reproductively isolated from other pop. Homo sapiens: modern human only species in genus Australopiths: earliest ancestor subtribe of Australopithecina 2 species in Panin Pan troglodytes (chimp) Pan paniscus (bonobo) II. Bipedalism & The Earliest Hominins bipedal: use of lower limbs to move around when walking/ running bowllike pelvis (hip bones) angling of femur (upper leg bone), etc. foramen magnum: opening in skull where spinal column joins the head directly beneath skull in biped recognizing earliest biped is difficult fossil record only has teeth & frag. of bone painstakingly put back together pg. 4143 A. Why is Bipedalism Important? most early hominins = small difference in size sexual dimorphism: dif. btwn F & M 3.84.5 ft. 65175 lbs. most w/ large brains comp. to chimps most w/ low, slopping forehead, flat cheekbones & prognathic faces prognathic: lower face projects outward bipedalism a. Advantages of Bipedalism increased terrestrial habitats free hands = manipulate objects & make tools carry objects, infants, food, throw things better able to withstand heat stresses ex. open habitat in grassland of Africa thermoregulation less body surface exposed to sun’s rays further away from heat accum. by ground surface exposed to wind/breeze to cool off problem= most early hominin suggest arboreal living (tree living) energy & efficiency advantages the extent of it is debated constant visual awareness of predators carrying things leads to male parental care pg. 4850 III. Tool Use & Manufacture biology & behavior can be reconstructed based on… skeletal anatomy specialized studies of mech. of locomotion diets until recently most data = flaked stone tolls tools predate this b/c chimp unlikely to preserve… modified twigs rocks & branches bone tools (found in Swarthkrans South Africa) dig termite mounds older than sites w/ stones behavior is older, once w/ organizational material A. Stone Tools until 2015, earlies record indirect Dikka (Ethiopia) 3.39 mil. yres ago animal bone w/ stone tool cuts area of Au. Afranensis stone tools not found so not sure newly reported stone tools (3.3 mil. y.a.) in Kenya deliberate stone artifacts found Gona (Eithiopia) (2.62.5 mil. y.a.) Oldowan: earliest known stone tools [until recently] 2.6 mil. y.a. choppers, flakes, hammer stones, scrapers represents cognitive leap recognition of properties of stone some break to be sharp knapping use hammer stone to hit another cobble so sharp edge flakes detach not all stones can be knapped early hominins recognized types recognize angle important for correct detachment understand value of sharp edge know where to look to find right stone carry the stone or the core & flake to where needed carried 15+ km. planning & foresight