Music 110, Week 2 Notes
Music 110, Week 2 Notes MUSC 110 001
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ariana Wilchenski on Monday September 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to MUSC 110 001 at University of South Carolina taught by James Hardwick in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Music in Music at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 09/19/16
Week 2-Intro to Music August 30,2016 Chapter 2- Rhythm, melody, and Harmony Consonance and Dissonance A vocalist who is singing the melody, there are cords, multiple layers of sound, texture Dissonant harmony- “pitches sounding momentarily disagreeable and unstable” Music is a direct reflection of human life through sound Constant harmony- “pitches sounding agreeable and stable” Resolution from dissonance to consonance Chords Triad: the basic chord of western harmony Consists of 3 pitches, using every other note of a scale Can be built on any degree of the scale Labeled with roman numerals Ostinato: a motive, rhythm or chord progression that repeats over and over again (is a device). Is usually a rhythm that is in the base and more rhythmic (same thing over and over) Chord progression- the purposeful movement of chords Chord progressions end with a cadence strongest cadence is from the dominant, or V, chords to the tonic, or I, chord Harmonic movement emphasized in the bass line Chapter 3- Color, Texture, Form, and Style Color, texture, form, are all musical language Basic Dynamic Markings: Forte (f)- loud Piano (p)- soft Crescendo- growing louder Diminuendo/decrescendo- growing softer Dynamics: Moderate dynamics Moderately Loud-Mezzo forte (mf) Moderately soft- mezzo piano (mp) Extremes: Very loud- fortissimo (ff) Very soft- Pianissimo (pp) Suddenly loud: sforzando (sfz) Color (timbre)- quality of sound produced by a voice or an instrument Vocal Timbre due to the unique vocal chords of each individual Vocal ranges from high to low: Soprano Mezzo-soprano Alto Tenor Baritone 2 Bass Baritone and Soprano duet Instrumental Timbre- different sizes, shapes, and materials of instruments produce unique vibrations that give each instrument its own musical color. Instruments are grouped into families based on the method of sound production. There are strings, brass, woodwinds, percussion Low string instruments- Cello and double bass Double bass is a transpirition instrument String playing techniques- usually played with a bow drawn across a string Vibrato- a slight fluctuation of the pitch (controlled wobble) If a bow is used its called arco, if not its called pizzicato (plucking the strings rather than bowing) Tremolo- a musical tremor, rapidly repeating the same pitch with the bow, musical effect Loud: tension and excitement Soft: shimmering quality Trill- rapid alternation between two neighboring pitches, most instruments can play trills Harp- a common folk instrument throughout the world, sometimes added to the orchestral ensemble, special effects Arpeggio- playing the notes of the triad in succession rather than at the same time 3 Glissando- running rapidly through the course of notes Woodwinds- Flute- air blow across a sharp edge, silvery tone and agile, Piccolo is a smaller, higher sounding flute Clarinet- air blow throughout mouthpiece with a single reed, a mellow smooth sound Oboe- air is blown through a double read. A nasal slightly exotic sound. English horn is a larger, lower version Bassoon- air is blown through a double reed, brass of the woodwind family, lowest bassoon is the contrabassoon Brass instruments- sound is produced by player buzzing his/her lips into a cup shaped mouthpiece Trumpet- high brilliant sounds, sometimes plays with mute Trombone- changes pitch by a moving slide, middle range sound is large and full French horn- associated with hunting and mountains and similar in range and sound to the trombone Tuba- the largest brass instrument, contributes to the foundation of the sound Percussion: Timpani (Kettle Drums)- it can be tuned and is a pitch instrument, orchestra normally includes four Percussion instruments that do not produce specific pitches Snare drum, bass drum, cymbals 4 Piano (forte piano)- sound produced by hammers hitting strings when a key is depressed, has a wide dynamic range possible Harpsichord- sound produced by a pick plucking a string when a key is depressed, no dynamic range Pipe Organ- sound produce by air rushing into a pipe when a key is pressed, groups of pipes produce different timbres. Timbres are controlled by knobs called stops Symphony Orchestra- a large and colorful instrumental ensemble Conductor- a symphony orchestra is directed by a conductor Role is similar to a coach- responsible for choosing music Texture: the density and arrangement of musical elements (layers of sound ***) Van Gogh uses lines and spaces to create a texture heavy ay the bottom but light at the top Use of different textures add contrast and interest 3 basic textures in music- monophony- 1 line “one sounding” a single line of melody with no harmony polyphony- add something to it “many sounding” two or more independent and equally important lines. Includes counterpoint- free, as in jazz, imitative, as in canons. homophony- two people playing the same thing, “same sounding” lines move together to new 5 pitches at about the same time. Also, it includes one melody with accompaniment (the texture) the type of texture depends on the number of musical lines imitative counterpoint- occurs when a melody in one part is restated by another, usually in close succession. Each part enters before the previous part concludes, creating an overlapping effect. (imitates same thing after) Free counterpoint- a slow-moving choral melody A livelier orchestra melody Form in art is the purposeful organization of the artist’s materials In music, the melody, harmony, rhythm, tone color, and texture can be arranged to create a sequence of evens that the composer finds aesthetically satisfying. Creating formal designs: Composers employ four basic processes to create formal designs from the elements of music: Statement, repetition, contrast, variation, recurrence Statement: presentation Repetition: especially important in the art o f music, because music exists in time, as soon as a sound occurs it is gone forever, is doing something immediately again Contrast: in many aspects of our lives we have a need to balance comfort and security with novelty and excitement. 6 Recurrence: returning to an earlier idea after experiencing contrast can be most satisfying. Variation- midway between repetition and contrast, original melody is there but changed Strophic form- the most familiar music form, used in hymns, pop songs, folk tunes, and patriotic sounds. Song form in which the basic unit (often called a stanza) is continually repeated. Brahms, Lullaby is a famous example of strophic form, the same music is used for each of two strophs of text preceded by a brief piano introduction Theme and Variations- Binary form- two contrasting units (A B) balance and complement each other Dissimilar mood, key, or melody creates variety Sections often repeated A A B B Symbol indicates repetition in the music: ||: A :||: B || (Binary form) The second movement (Andante) begins with a theme in binary form. Haydn proceeds to compose a set of variations on it for the rest of the movement. (Haydn, Symphony No. 94, 11) Ternary Form- most common form in classical music (A B A) B section in a contrasting style: -change in melody and key -usually a change in timbre (instrumentation, range) 7 Tchaikovsky, “dance of the reed pipes” (ternary form)- this is from the famous ballet the nutcracker. The A is bright and cheery. However, the B is dark, low, and even ominous. Rondo form- refrain (A) alternates with contrasting music (B, C, etc.) usually with at least two contrasting sections. Is one of the oldest musical forms (repeat of the A) Mouret, Rondeau (rondo form)- the Rondeau of Jean- Joseph Mouret (1682-1738) is used as the theme music for the television show “Masterpiece Theater” on PBS Musical Style- simply stated, the common attributes that unite similar works of art. The attribute for music include all we have learned thus far about listening to music (rhythm, melody, harmony, color texture, and form) Music historians identify eight style periods, ranging from the middle ages to the postmodern era. 8
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