Speech Science Week Four
Speech Science Week Four SLP5120
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Freya Kniaz on Monday September 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SLP5120 at Wayne State University taught by Li Hsieh in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Speech Science in Linguistics and Speech Pathology at Wayne State University.
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Date Created: 09/19/16
Speech Science Week Four Chapter Seven; The Respiratory System I. Introduction A. The primary purpose of respiration is ventilation B. Ventilation: process of moving air into and out of the airways and lungs in order to exchange oxygen entering the lungs and carbon dioxide leaving the lunds II. The Pulmonary Apparatus A. The pulmonary apparatus includes the lungs and airways and is the medium for respiration 1. Bronchial tree: trachea, bronchi, and bronchioles B. Trachea: hollow tube about 1016 cm long in adults 1. Made up of cartilagenous rings, which are closed in front and open in back 2. Between the rings and the back wall are made of smooth muscle 3. Overlying it is mucous membrane C. Cilia: mucousproducing cells and millions of hairlike projections on epithelium of the trachea, acts as a filtering system D. Mainstem bronch: divides trachea into each lung 1. Divides again into bronchioles a) Made of only smooth muscle and mucous membrane b) Increases surface area c) Divides into alveolar ducts (1) Dense in capillaries (2) Surfactant: substance in alveoli that keeps the alveoli inflated by lowering the surface tension of their walls E. The right lung is larger and has three lobes, the left lung has to make room for the house and only has two lobes F. The pulmonary apparatus is enclosed within the chest wall: made u of the rib cage, abdominal wall, abdominal contents and diaphragm G. Central tendon: a flat sheet tendon that that composes the center portion of the diaphragm H. In relaxed state, the diaphragm is an inverted bowl; when it contracts, it pulls itself down III. The Muscles of Respiration A. Diaphragm increases and decreases volume of the thoracic cavity B. There are eleven pairs of external intercostal muscles pull up the rib cage C. There are eleven pairs of internal intercostal muscles that pull the rib cage down D. Neck accessory muscles 1. Scalenes elevates ribs one and two 2. Sternocleidomastoid: elevate rib cage E. Thorax accessory muscles: 1. Costal levators: elevate rib cage 2. Pectoralis major: elevate rib cage 3. Pectoralis minor: depress ribs three to five 4. Serratus anterior: elevates ribs one to nine 5. Serratus posterior inferior: depresses ribs nine to twelve 6. Subclavius: elevates rib cage 7. Subcostals: lower rib cage 8. Transverse thoracic: depress rib cage F. Abdomen accessory muscle: 1. External oblique: compress abdomen 2. Internal oblique: compress abdomen 3. Rectus abdominis: compress abdomen 4. Transverse abdominis: compress abdomen IV. Pleural Linkage A. The only way lungs can move is by some external source; the external source is generated through the structure and linkage of the lungs and thorax (pleural linkage) B. Visceral pleura: thin sheet of membrane that covers each lung on the outside C. Parietal pleura: small space between pleura that is filled with pleural fluid D. The three lung pressures: 1. Intrapleural pressure: between visceral and parietal pleurae, n egative 2. Alveolar pressure: within the lungs, c hanges from positive to negative 3. Transpulmonary pressure: difference between the two, p ositive E. Pneumothorax: penetration of pleura that causes a lung to collapse V. Moving Air into and out of the Lungs A. Air is moved in and out of the lungs by increasing and decreasing the air pressure inside the lungs B. Inhalation: alveolar pressure must become negative so that air will be forced to flow into the respiratory system, to decrease alveolar pressure the volume of the thoracic cavity and lungs must be enlarged 1. This is done by contracting the diaphragm, which flattens out and increases the vertical dimension of the thorax 2. Contraction of the external intercostals to pull rib cage upward and outward slightly C. Exhalation: for air to exit, alveolar pressure must be higher than atmospheric pressure, so the volume of the lungs must decrease 1. Diaphragm relaxes back to its domeshaped position, decreasing the vertical dimension of the thorax D. Rate of Breathing is measured in breaths per minute E. Development changes during the first year of life: alveoli increase in number and size, alveolar surface area increases, lung size and weight increases, thoracic cavity enlarges and changes in shape, the angle of the ribs changes with upright posture, rib cage muscle bulk, pleural pressure becomes more negative VI. Lung Volumes and Capacities A. Spirometer: device that measure that amount of air an individual inhales or exhales and the rate at which the air is moved into or out of the lungs B. Resting expiratory level: state of equilibrium in the respiratory system, natural tendency of the lungs to collapse is balanced by the natural tendency of the thorax to expand C. Endexpiratory level: end point of a normal quiet exhalation D. Tidal volume: volume of air inhaled and exhaled during a cycle of respiration E. Inspiratory reserve volume: volume of air that can be inhaled above the tidal volume F. Expiratory reserve volume: volume of air that can be exhaled below the tidal volume G. Residual volume: volume of air remaining in the lungs after a maximum expiration and that cannot be voluntarily expelled H. Vital capacity: volume of air that can be exhaled after a maximum inhalation (IRV+TV+ERV) I. Functional residual capacity: volume of air remaining in the lungs and airways at the endexpiratory level J. Total lung capacity: total amount of air that lungs can hold K. Inspiratory capacity: maximum volume of air that can be inspired from endexpiratory level (TV+IRV) VII. Differences between Breathing for Life and Breathing for Speech A. Breathing for vegetative purpose and breathing to generate a power supply for speech involve different motor strategies B. Breathing for life is usually an unconscious, automatic process; the rate and extent of breathing are determined by the needs of one’s body at a particular moment in time C. Breathing for speech complicates the process because the need for appropriate ventilation is integrated with linguistic considerations 1. The need to take breaths at linguistically appropriate places in order to not interrupt the flow of speech, the need to take an appropriate amount of ait for the utterance to be produced, and the need to generate an adequate length of exhalation to be able to say more than a few syllables in one breath D. Five major changes occur when switching from breathing for life to breathing for speech 1. Location of air intake: nose for life, mouth for speech 2. Ratio of time for inhalation versus exhalation: see table, pg. 247 3. Volume of air 4. Muscle activity for exhalation: passive for life, active for speech a) Recoil forces: restoring forces b) Relation pressures: air pressure generated by the passive recoil forces 5. Chest wall position: abdomen displace outward relative to rib cage for life, abdomen displaced inward relative to rib cage for speech VIII. Speech Breathing for Isolated Vowels and Connected Speech A. Sustaining vowels require a steady outflow of air while connected speech is more variable (it requires more change in loudness, rate, duration, and stress) B. Prephonatory chest wall movements C. Read 253355
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