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KIN 345 Functional Anatomy Part 2

by: Ixchel Buelna

KIN 345 Functional Anatomy Part 2 KIN 345

Marketplace > California State University, Northridge > Kinesiology > KIN 345 > KIN 345 Functional Anatomy Part 2
Ixchel Buelna
California State University, Northridge
GPA 3.16
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About this Document

This was a continuation of reviewing functional anatomy. These notes cover muscle types, muscle actions, and primary movers.
Dr. Vadim Zaika
Class Notes
Kinesiology, Biomechanics, Muscles




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ixchel Buelna on Monday September 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to KIN 345 at California State University, Northridge taught by Dr. Vadim Zaika in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 47 views. For similar materials see Biomechanics in Kinesiology at California State University, Northridge.

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Date Created: 09/19/16
Functional Anatomy – WEEK 3  Musculoskeletal system o 3 types of machines producing movement  Pulley  Changes effective direction of applied force  Patella, lat. malleolus  Wheel and axle  Function essentially as a form of a lever  Allows for rotation, flexion and extension  shoulder  Lever (most common)  Rotate about an axis  Joints are the axes  Force is applied to produce the movement  Muscle contract to apply force (bring together or move apart)  First class (AFR)  Neck muscles in head  See-saw, scissors  Advantage: keep balanced, and not much energy required  Second class (ARF)  ..  Third class (FAR)  Not very affective force multiplier  Lever arm (distance from axes of rotation to …) is very short, allowing for not much advantage  Longer lever arm=apply much greater force  Skeletal muscles o Muscle tissue has the ability to contract o Human movement made possible by skeletal muscles pulling on bones across joints  Only pulling by contracting or relaxing (no pushing) o Origin - proximal attachment, closest to midline, remains relatively fixed o Insertion - distal attachment, farthest from midline, moves toward the origin  Muscles names o Size  Major = large  Maximus = largest  Minimus = smallest  Longus - long  Brevis - short o Action  Flexor - flexes o Shape  Deltoid - triangle  Trapezius - trapezoid (4 sided) o Location Anterior - o Attachment site Sternocleidomastoid - attaches from sternum o Number of origins o Fiber direction Rectus - straight Transversus - across midline Oblique - diagonal from midline o Group Quadriceps o Rectus femoris  Hamstrings  Semitendinosus  Semimembranosus  Rotator cuff  Subscapularis, supraspinatus  Triceps surae  Soleus, gastrocnemius (has 2 heads)  Muscle action o Muscles have action, or can produce movement, at the joint only if they cross that joint  Uniarticular - cross a single joint  brachialis  Biarticular (most common) - cross two joints  gastrocnemius  Triarticular (rare) - cross three joints  Bicep brachii  Multiarticular - cross more than three joints  Muscles that move fingers and toes o Biceps femoris - knee flexors o Rectus femoris - knee extensors o Isometric  Not lengthening or shortening, but contracting  Not changing length, no movement o Isotonic (isoinertial)  Dynamic contraction  Muscles change length  Same tension (same resistance)  2 phases  Concentric - muscle shortening during force production  Work against resistance  Contracts and overcomes resistance  Eccentric - muscle lengthening during force production  Lower things in a slow, controlled manner  Working with resistance  Resistance overcomes force exerted by the muscle o Isokinetic  Dynamic contraction  Constant speed (velocity) of movement  Muscle exerts force while changing length  Using specialized equipment  Used for rehab purposes  Muscle function o Agonist - produce the desired movement  Control the movement (during eccentric contraction), or maintain a certain position (during concentric contraction)  Several muscles act together, but some play a greater role than others  Size, location contribute to this  Primary movers - muscle making the greatest contribution o Antagonist - oppose the agonist (acting against primary movers)  Produce the opposite movements  While agonist contracts, antagonist relaxes (and vice versa)  Agonist actively shortens, antagonist passively lengthens (and vice versa) o Coactivation (co-contraction)  Simultaneous action of both agonist and antagonist  Should not be used to describe the simultaneous action of multiple agonists o Neutralization  Process of cancelling out an undesirable secondary movement (and creating stability)  Gastrocnemius  Acts as both a plantar flexor and invertor  Peroneus longus  Plantar flexor and everter o Stabilization  Muscle action to fixate or stabilize the area to enable another limb or body segment to move o Muscle Synergy  Cooperative of several muscles working together as a single unit  Muscles of major joints o Prime movers Shoulder  Flexion  Anterior deltoid  Pec. Major  Extension  Lats  Posterior deltoid  Abduction  Middle deltoid  Adduction  Pec. Major  Lats  Horizontal abduction  Posterior deltoid  Horizontal adduction  Pec. Major  Internal rotation  Subscapularis  External rotation  Teres minor  Infraspinatus Elbow  Flexion  Biceps  Extension  Triceps Forearm (RU)  Pronation  Pronator teres  Pronator quadratus  Supination  Supinators  Biceps Trunk  Flexion  Rectus abdominus  Extension  Erector spinae (spinalis, longissimus, illiocostalis)  Rotation Hip  Flexion  Iliacus  Psoas major  Extension  Gluteus max  Abduction  Gluteus medius  Gluteus minimus *rotator cuff of the hip aid in hip stability*  Adduction  Adductor group (adductor longus, magnus, brevis)  Internal rotation  Pectineus  Adductor brevis and longus  Tensor fascia latae  Gluteus minimus  External rotation  Gluteus max and medius  Obturator internus and externus  Gemelius superior and inferior  Sartorius Piriformis  Hip extended (AP)  External rotation  Hip flexed 60 degrees or more  Internal rotation Knee  Flexion  Hamstrings (biceps femoris, semimembranosis, semitendinosis)  Extension  Rectus femoris  Vastus medialis, lateralis, intermedius Ankle (subtalar)  Plantar  Gastrocnemius  Soleus  Dorsiflexion  Tib anterior  Eversion  Peroneus longus and brevis  Inversion  Tib anterior and posterior


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