Week Four Notes
Week Four Notes Comm 101
Popular in Communications in the 21st Century
Popular in Communication
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashley Choma on Monday September 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Comm 101 at University of Nebraska Lincoln taught by Dr. Aaron Duncan in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Communications in the 21st Century in Communication at University of Nebraska Lincoln.
Reviews for Week Four Notes
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 09/19/16
Communication in the 21 Century COMM 101 Week Four Notes 9/12 Pages 70-87 Reading Assignment Chapter 18: The Rhetoric Studying public speaking & communication in general is important in the U.S. Society for several reasons: o Communication skills are paramount to securing & maintaining a job o Public speaking suggests that as a society we are receptive to listening to views that may conflict with our own o When one speaks before a group, the information resonates beyond that group of people The Rhetorical Tradition o Sophists: teachers of public speaking (rhetoric) in ancient Greece o Aristotle’s definition of rhetoric: the available means of persuasion Assumptions of the Rhetoric o Aristotelian theory is guided by the following two assumptions Effective public speakers must consider their audience Effective public speakers use a # of proofs in their presentations o Audience analysis: an assessment & evaluation of listeners o Aristotle’s proofs refer to the means of persuasion & 3 exist: ethos, pathos, and logos Ethos: the perceived character, intelligence, & good will of a speaker as they become revealed through his or her speech Logos: the logical proof that speakers employ – their arguments and rationalizations Pathos: emotional proof; emotions drawn from audience members Syllogisms: A Three-Tiered Argument o Syllogism: a set of propositions that are related to one another & draw a conclusion from the major & minor premises o Premises are starting points or beginners used by speakers – they establish justification for a conclusion o Syllogism looks like: A B B C Therefore, A C Canons of Rhetoric o Canons are the certain guidelines or principles o Invention Define as a canon of rhetoric that pertains to the construction or development of an argument related to a particular speech Topics: an aid to invention that refers to the arguments a speaker uses Civic spaces: a metaphor suggesting that speakers have “locations” where the opportunity to persuade others exist o Arrangement A canon of rhetoric that pertains to a speaker’s ability to organize a speech Speeches should generally follow a threefold approach” Introduction: part of an organizational strategy in speech that includes gaining the audience’s attention, connecting w/ the audience, & providing an overview of the speaker’s purpose Body: part of an organizational strategy in a speech that includes arguments, examples, & important details to make a point Conclusion: part of an organizational strategy in speech that is aimed at summarizing a speaker’s main points & arousing emotions in an audience o Style A canon of rhetoric that includes the use of language to express ideas in a speech Glosses: outdated words in a speech (should be avoided) Metaphor: a figure of speech that helps to make the unclear more understandable o Memory A canon of rhetoric that refers to a speaker’s effort in storing information for a speech o Delivery A canon of rhetoric that refers to the nonverbal presentation of a speaker’s ideas Types of Rhetoric o Forensic rhetoric: a type of rhetoric that pertains to speakers prompting feelings of guilt or innocence from an audience (past) o Epideictic rhetoric: a type of rhetoric that pertains to praising or blaming (present) o Deliberative rhetoric: a type of rhetoric that determines an audience’s course of action (future) Integration, Critique, and Closing o Logical Consistency o Heurism o Test of Time 9/12 In Class Notes The Rhetoric Aristotle was a student of Plato’s but he did not agree w/ all of Plato’s thinking Aristotle believed that being a capable public speaker was essential Aristotle defined rhetoric as “all the available means of persuasion” Effective public speaking must consider their audience Effective public speakers use a number of proofs in their presentations Assumptions of Rhetoric o Audience analysis: an assessment and evaluation of listeners o Aristotle argued that there were three basic forms of proof to use in argument: Ethos – credibility, good will toward the speaker Pathos – emotional appeals drawn from audience Logos – logical proof Syllogisms o A set of propositions that are related to one another & draw a conclusion from the major & minor premises o Major premise: all men are mortal o Minor premise: Aristotle is a man o Conclusion: therefore, Aristotle is mortal Types of Rhetoric o Forensics – courtroom o Epideictic – ceremonial o Deliberative – political Delivery Tips o Make sure to stand up straight o Do not shift your weight o Make eye contact w/ your audience o Gesture naturally & avoid playing with your hands o Project so that everyone can hear you o Have energy & enthusiasm during your speech Introduction o There are five components of an introduction: Gain our attention Provide background information Statement of social significance Thesis statement Preview of main points Structure o Problem-cause-solution (persuasion) o Cause-effect-solution (persuasion) o Chronology (informative) o Explanation-application-implication (informative) Conclusion o 3 components: review of points re-state thesis closing time Citing sources – look @ power point on blackboard Do not start w/ your thesis statement Can write out your first and last lines 9/14 in class notes The Lure and Danger of Extremist Rhetoric What makes a healthy democracy? o The U.S. is the world’s oldest continuous democracy o We live in a world unprecedented technological access & power o Therefore, we should be living in the greatest period for democracy Controversy is healthy The public interest is well served by robust public argument Difference between Extreme & Extremist o Extremist rhetoric refers to the expression of single-minded certainty by the believers in their extremist ideology o Extreme rhetoric often is hard to distinguish from extremist rhetoric b/c it takes its language out of the rhetorical playbook The Problems with Extremism o Extremist rhetoric distorts the truth Unwilling to concede even a grain of truth to the oppositions point each sides distorts their versions of the facts This makes it hard for citizens to gain access to neutral information that allows them to make up their minds on their own o The result is that dialogue & compromise become impossible o Unable to compromise or agree on even basic issues the government & political process cease to properly function The result of which is the situation we currently have in congress o Disengagement by citizens The Dangers of Extremism o Serious extremist rhetoric has two defining features It tends toward single-mindedness on any given issues It passionately expresses certainty about the supremacy of its perspective on the issues w/o submitting itself either to a reasonable test of truth or to a reasoned public debate The Lures of Extremist Rhetoric o It gets media attention o It gets voters’ attention o It’s easier o It’s more certain o We get to be part of a group o Not all extreme or extremist rhetoric is necessarily bad for democracy
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'