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General Physics 151 Week 3 Notes (September 12, 2016)

by: Lindsey Notetaker

General Physics 151 Week 3 Notes (September 12, 2016) PHYS151

Marketplace > University of Nevada - Las Vegas > Physics > PHYS151 > General Physics 151 Week 3 Notes September 12 2016
Lindsey Notetaker

GPA 3.585

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These notes are from lecture notes and the corresponding chapter 3 textbook notes with vocabulary
General Physics I
Dr. Pang
Class Notes
Physics, Force
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lindsey Notetaker on Monday September 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PHYS151 at University of Nevada - Las Vegas taught by Dr. Pang in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see General Physics I in Physics at University of Nevada - Las Vegas.


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Date Created: 09/19/16
General Physics 151 Week 3 Notes (September 12, 2016) Chapter 3: Forces and Motion Change  Key to my notes: all notes that are taken from the lecture will be the first section, notes I take  from the textbook will be the second section, and the vocabulary words from the chapter with  definitions will be the last sections! (:  Lecture Notes  Force­a measure of action that causes an object to change its current state o It is a vector measured in Newtons (N) o Can alter the equilibrium of an object  State­physical characteristics of an object to remain its current state Mass­measure of inertia  o Inertia­the tendency of an object to remain its current state o Measured in kilograms (kg) o Higher mass means the more difficult it is to move  Acceleration­the rate of velocity change o Measured in meters per seconds squared  Newton’s first law­ every body continues in its state or rest, or of uniform motion in a  right line, unless it is compelled to change that state by a force impressed on it o Modern: an object remains in its current state, at rest or moving with a constant  velocity, unless acted upon by a nonzero net force  Look at things as a point so start with an object and then have it become a point and  multiple points become a system Newton’s second law (equation of motion)­change of motion is proportional to the  motive force impressed; and it made in the direction of the right line in which force is  impressed o Modern: the acceleration of an object is proportional to the net force exerted on it  and to the inverse of the mass  o Acceleration = (total net force exerted on the object)/(mass of the object) o Force= (Acceleration of the object) X (mass of the object)  Measured in (kilograms X meters)/(seconds squared)  o Negative force is when it is moving away from the object  Problem solving techniques  o Draw all the forces on each object  o Choose a convenient coordinate system o Decompose all the forces along perpendicular directions o Apply Newton’s second law along each axis  Newton’s third law says that for every action there is an opposite and equal reaction o F12=­F21 Gravity is also known as universal gravitational force  o Fundamental forces Page 1 of 4 General Physics 151 Week 3 Notes (September 12, 2016)  Gravity   On earth it is a constant of about 9.80 meters per seconds squared  It is known as weight on earth so weight = mass X gravity   Electroweak force   Strong force  Practical forces o Gravity (weight) o Contact force   Normal force­the normal component of the constant force   Friction­always against the relative motion  The tangential component (along the interface) of the contact force between two objects in contact  o Stress  Elastic force   Tension  Pressure o Viscosity  Textbook Notes Even big objects can be looked at as a point  o represents an object well if the length scale of its motion is much greater than its  size or every point on the object behaves You take an object and then turn it into a point and from there it can be turned into a  system which is a collection of points  Having a reference point allows to see the motion that was caused by the force   generally believed that the great insight of Galileo on the motion of free­falling objects  was the main drive that led Newton to discover his laws of motion  Newton’s second law is also known as the “equation of motion” o Force = mass X acceleration   Problem­solving strategies—Free­body diagram approach: o  Draw all the forces on each of the objects correctly; o  Choose a convenient coordinate system; o  Decompose all the forces along perpendicular directions (axes); o  Apply Newton’s second law (equation of motion) along each of the three  directions if necessary; o Make connection to the kinematics of the object through its acceleration.  There are three types of fundamental forces  o Gravity  Page 2 of 4 General Physics 151 Week 3 Notes (September 12, 2016)  exists between any two objects that have masses and it was formulated  mathematically by Newton  F = −G[(mass of object 1 X mass of object 2)/( distance of separation of  the two particles)  G = 6.67384(80) ×10−11 m3/(kgs2)  Gravity equals 9.80 meters per seconds squared  Does not need to be in contact to experience  o Electroweak forces   exists between charged particles and elementary particles o Strong force   responsible for keeping nucleons together in a nucleus  weight = mass X gravity   Weak force and strong force act at the subatomic scale and usually require special  equipments in order to see them in action  There are two types of frictions  o Static friction is the resistive force resulted from the tendency of relative motion  of the two objects in contact, but not actually having a relative motion o kinetic friction is the resistive force resulted from the actual relative motion of the two objects in contact  too much tension can cause objects to snap or break Vocabulary Words     Dynamics: the way in which objects of an interacting system behave, react, and affect  each other     State: an object’s physical characteristics at the given moment, such as its velocity,  geometric shape, and content distribution  Mass: is a measure of its inertia  Force: a measure of an action that causes an object to change its current state of motion;  it is the means of delivering interaction  Newton’s First Law: an object remains in its current state, at rest or moving with a  constant velocity, unless acted upon by a nonzero net force  Newton’s Second Law: The acceleration of an object is proportional to the net force  exerted on it and to the inverse of its mass  Free­Body Diagram: with each of the objects involved isolated from one another by  replacing each interaction with a force sketched as a vector on the object Page 3 of 4 General Physics 151 Week 3 Notes (September 12, 2016)  Newton’s Third Law: The action on one object is equal in magnitude but opposite in  direction to the reaction on the other for two objects in interaction.  Weight: a  measure the gravity on an object near the surface of Earth  Normal Force: is the component of the contact force normal or perpendicular to the  interface  Friction: is the tangential component of the contact force between the two objects  Static Friction: is the resistive force resulted from the tendency of relative motion of the  two objects in contact, but not actually having a relative motion  Kinetic Friction: is the resistive force resulted from the actual relative motion of the two objects in contact  Tension: the state of being stretched tight.  Equilibrium: when net forces equal zero Page 4 of 4


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