Week 4 Notes
Week 4 Notes PSYC/CYAF 471
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cara Cahalan on Monday September 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC/CYAF 471 at University of Nebraska Lincoln taught by Rosemary Esseks in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Human Sexuality in Psychology at University of Nebraska Lincoln.
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Date Created: 09/19/16
9.13 Female Anatomy: external sex organs Vulva – external sex organs/genitals o Mons veneris: Fatty cushion resting over pubic bone Function largely protective o Labia majora – two parallel folds of skin extending from the mons veneris to the perineum (tissue between vagina and anus) o Inner surface contains sebaceous (oil) glands Engorges with blood during sexual excitement o Labia minora – two parallel, smaller, thinner, red folds of skin between the labia majora and the vestibule Forward parts form prepuce (clitoral hood) Contain some erectile tissue o Clitoris – physically similar to penis During sexual excitement engorges with blood during sexual excitement Shaft – length of clitoris Glans: Head of clitoris Filled with nerve endings Only function is sexual pleasure Female genital mutilation: o Performed in the US from 1890s-1930s to stop masturbation o Performed currently in parts of Middle East, Africa, and Asia, often to Ensure virginity at marriage Address perception of clitoris as “male” o About 80-110 million worldwide o Circumcision – removal of clitoral hood o Clitoridectomy – removal of clitoris o Genital infibulation – removal of clitoris, labia minora, and most of labia majora o Commonly done without anesthesia/disinfectants o Can cause infection, trouble urinating/menstruating, childbirth complications, shock, and death o Condemned by the World Health Organization and United Nations Vestibule – region contained within the labia minora o Urethral opening – conducts urine from bladder out of body o Urinary tract infections: Usually caused by bacteria from colon, which can be transmitted during sexual activity Signs include increased urinary frequency and burning during urination Prevention: wipe front to back, wash hands before touching genitals, urinate after intercourse o Introitus – vaginal opening Bartholin’s glands Secrete fluid whose purpose is unknown Infection can cause swelling/irritation Hymen – fold of tissue covering introitus at birth Generally perforated at center to permit flow of menstrual fluid Has been used as “proof” of virginity, although some women are born without it/do not experience tearing at first intercourse Female Anatomy: Internal Sex Organs Vagina – tube of tissue extending from external genitalia to cervix (opening of uterus). Penis and sperm travel up during sexual intercourse; menstrual fluid and babies travel down o At usual state, it is about 4” in length o Expands during intercourse and childbirth o Walls create secretions to: Maintain chemical balance Provide lubrication during sexual arousal o Grafenberg spot: Size of a dime in the lower third of the vagina, towards the front, just beyond pubic bone Stimulation causes pleasure, sometimes orgasm with up to 4oz of ejaculate o Vaginitis – refers to inflammation of vagina Can be due to antibiotics, irritation, even fatigue/poor diet Signs include abnormal discharge, burning, itching, urinary urgency Prevention – wash with soap, wear cotton underpants, reduce carb intake Uterus – grow the babies o Usually about 3” long, 2” wide, 1” thick, and pear-shaped o Cervix – lower portion of uterus; donut-shaped Os – opening into interior of uterus Mucus transports sperm through os during ovulation, blocks os in infertile times of cycle o Fundus – dome-shaped top of uterus o Perimetrium Outer layer of uterus Made from same material as covering of other internal organs o Myometrium Muscular layer of uterus Responsible for contractions that expel contents of uterus (menstrual fluid or babies) o Endometrium Inner layer of uterus Shed with each menstrual cycle o Cervical cancer More common among women who begin sexual activity early and have multiple partners due to increased risk of HPV Cure rate close to 100% if caught early Pap smear – detects cell changes that may lead to cervical cancer and other conditions o Endometriosis Uterine tissue growing elsewhere in abdominal cavity Can cause significant pain o Endometrial cancer Signaled by abnormal bleeding Survival rate is 95% if caught before metastasis o Pelvic inflammatory disease Inflammation of uterus, ovaries, and/or fallopian tubes Most cases due to STIs o Ovaries – produce ova (eggs) and hormones o Ova Women are born with about half million to 2 million total 300-500 eventually mature o Follicle – cellular sac surrounding each ovum o Corpus luteum Follicle after release of ovum Continues producing hormones o Ovarian cysts Can occur when a mature follicle fails to release an egg, possibly causing swelling and pain Most will resolve without treatment Polycystic ovarian disease – can impair fertility; treated with hormones o Ovarian cancer Most deadly form of reproductive cancer among women Symptoms are vague, and thus early detection is not common o Fallopian tubes – transport ova from ovaries to uterus o 4” long, trumpet-shaped o Fimbriae Finger-like projections around ovaries Corral released ova into tubes 9.15 Female Anatomy: Internal Sex Organs Hysterectomy o Hysterectomy – surgical removal of removal of the uterus o Total hysterectomy – removal of uterus o Radical hysterectomy – removal of uterus, ovaries, and fallopian tubes o Oophorectomy – surgical removal of ovaries o Performed to treat cancer, severe PID/endometriosis/fibroid tumors, rare complications of pregnancy (e.g., some ectopic pregnancies) o 1 in 9 women will have one in her lifetime o US rates have dropped dramatically in recent years due to trends towards less radical treatments Female Anatomy: Menstruation Occurs when unfertilized lining of endometrium sloughs off and is discharged as bloody flow Menarche – first menstrual cycle for a young woman o Average age is 12 in the US, but varies from 8-15 o Age of onset related to general health and heredity Higher body fat Menstrual cycle – phases o Timing From first day of flow to last day before next flow Varies from 24-42 days (average 28 days) o Negative feedback mechanism – process by which variations in hormonal levels trigger changes in levels of other hormones o Menstrual phase If fertilization hasn’t occurred o Drops in levels of estrogen and progesterone trigger shedding of endometrial tissues Tends to last 2-7 days (average: 5) Shedding triggers pituitary gland to release follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) o Proliferative phase Rise in level of FSH causes several follicles to develop Developing follicles produce estrogen, causing endometrium to thicken Peak in estrogen causes pituitary to o Reduce FSH and release luteinizing hormone (LH), resulting in Ovulation – tends to occur 14 days before start of next period o Secretory phase Continued LH causes ruptured follicle to transform into corpus luteum, which produces progesterone, causing endometrium to thicken If no egg implants, pituitary stops producing LH and FSH, which causes corpus luteum to degenerate, reducing levels of estrogen and progesterone (which restarts the cycle) Problems associated with the menstrual cycle: o Premenstrual syndrome 80-95% of women have some symptoms (e.g., bloating and pain) 5% have premenstrual dysphoric disorder o Involves emotional, behavioral, physical, and cognitive symptoms that significantly interfere with functioning o Treated with SSRIs and/or hormonal birth control o Dysmenorrhea – pain during menstruation o Amenorrhea – absence of menstruation o To reduce menstrual discomfort – exercise regularly, increase intake of fluids and fiber (help with GI), reduce salt (bloating) o Menopause – cessation of menstruation Signs include cessation of menstruation, hot flashes, and vaginal changes (e.g., dryness) Many women report primary reaction is relief Average age of onset is 51 o Hormone replacement therapy – involves taking synthetic estrogen and/or progesterone Reduces hot flashes and osteoporosis Increases risk of breast cancer, heart disease, stroke, dementia, blot clots, death from cancer May help reduce menopausal symptoms; recommendation is to use lowest therapeutic dose, short-term only Female Anatomy: Additional External Sex Organs Breasts – modified sweat glands that produce milk for nourishment of offspring o Mammary glands – produce milk; 15-25 per breast o Nipple – protuberance containing milk ducts o Areola – pigmented ring around nipple Breast cancer o Most common form of cancer in women o Risk factors include age, family history, and longer exposure to estrogen (e.g., early menarche, late menopause, no pregnancies or first after 30) o Treatment involves surgery (e.g., mastectomy or lumpectomy), chemotherapy, radiation, and/or medication o Five-year survival rate is 89% Breast cancer – “ABCs of Breast Health” o Annual mammogram – beginning at age 45 for average-risk women, continuing yearly to age 55 and then every other year as long as you remain in good health o Breast awareness – useful to be familiar with the normal features of your breasts Breast feeding o Provides superior nutrition compared to formula and cow’s milk o Associated with reduced obesity, higher IQ, disease resistance for baby o Exclusive breastfeeding recommended for first 6 months; suggested continue to at least first birthday o 75% start, but only 23% make it to a year
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