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Week 4 Notes

by: Cara Cahalan

Week 4 Notes PSYC/CYAF 471

Cara Cahalan
GPA 3.8

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About this Document

Includes lectures 7 and 8 (Female anatomy, physiology, and health)
Human Sexuality
Rosemary Esseks
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Human Sexuality

Popular in Psychology

This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cara Cahalan on Monday September 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC/CYAF 471 at University of Nebraska Lincoln taught by Rosemary Esseks in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Human Sexuality in Psychology at University of Nebraska Lincoln.


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Date Created: 09/19/16
9.13 Female Anatomy: external sex organs  Vulva – external sex organs/genitals o Mons veneris:  Fatty cushion resting over pubic bone  Function largely protective o Labia majora – two parallel folds of skin extending from the mons veneris to the perineum (tissue between vagina and anus) o Inner surface contains sebaceous (oil) glands  Engorges with blood during sexual excitement o Labia minora – two parallel, smaller, thinner, red folds of skin between the labia majora and the vestibule  Forward parts form prepuce (clitoral hood)  Contain some erectile tissue o Clitoris – physically similar to penis  During sexual excitement engorges with blood during sexual excitement  Shaft – length of clitoris  Glans:  Head of clitoris  Filled with nerve endings  Only function is sexual pleasure  Female genital mutilation: o Performed in the US from 1890s-1930s to stop masturbation o Performed currently in parts of Middle East, Africa, and Asia, often to  Ensure virginity at marriage  Address perception of clitoris as “male” o About 80-110 million worldwide o Circumcision – removal of clitoral hood o Clitoridectomy – removal of clitoris o Genital infibulation – removal of clitoris, labia minora, and most of labia majora o Commonly done without anesthesia/disinfectants o Can cause infection, trouble urinating/menstruating, childbirth complications, shock, and death o Condemned by the World Health Organization and United Nations  Vestibule – region contained within the labia minora o Urethral opening – conducts urine from bladder out of body o Urinary tract infections:  Usually caused by bacteria from colon, which can be transmitted during sexual activity  Signs include increased urinary frequency and burning during urination  Prevention: wipe front to back, wash hands before touching genitals, urinate after intercourse o Introitus – vaginal opening  Bartholin’s glands  Secrete fluid whose purpose is unknown  Infection can cause swelling/irritation  Hymen – fold of tissue covering introitus at birth  Generally perforated at center to permit flow of menstrual fluid  Has been used as “proof” of virginity, although some women are born without it/do not experience tearing at first intercourse Female Anatomy: Internal Sex Organs  Vagina – tube of tissue extending from external genitalia to cervix (opening of uterus). Penis and sperm travel up during sexual intercourse; menstrual fluid and babies travel down o At usual state, it is about 4” in length o Expands during intercourse and childbirth o Walls create secretions to:  Maintain chemical balance  Provide lubrication during sexual arousal o Grafenberg spot:  Size of a dime in the lower third of the vagina, towards the front, just beyond pubic bone  Stimulation causes pleasure, sometimes orgasm with up to 4oz of ejaculate o Vaginitis – refers to inflammation of vagina  Can be due to antibiotics, irritation, even fatigue/poor diet  Signs include abnormal discharge, burning, itching, urinary urgency  Prevention – wash with soap, wear cotton underpants, reduce carb intake  Uterus – grow the babies o Usually about 3” long, 2” wide, 1” thick, and pear-shaped o Cervix – lower portion of uterus; donut-shaped  Os – opening into interior of uterus  Mucus transports sperm through os during ovulation, blocks os in infertile times of cycle o Fundus – dome-shaped top of uterus o Perimetrium  Outer layer of uterus  Made from same material as covering of other internal organs o Myometrium  Muscular layer of uterus  Responsible for contractions that expel contents of uterus (menstrual fluid or babies) o Endometrium  Inner layer of uterus  Shed with each menstrual cycle o Cervical cancer  More common among women who begin sexual activity early and have multiple partners due to increased risk of HPV  Cure rate close to 100% if caught early  Pap smear – detects cell changes that may lead to cervical cancer and other conditions o Endometriosis  Uterine tissue growing elsewhere in abdominal cavity  Can cause significant pain o Endometrial cancer  Signaled by abnormal bleeding  Survival rate is 95% if caught before metastasis o Pelvic inflammatory disease  Inflammation of uterus, ovaries, and/or fallopian tubes  Most cases due to STIs o Ovaries – produce ova (eggs) and hormones o Ova  Women are born with about half million to 2 million total  300-500 eventually mature o Follicle – cellular sac surrounding each ovum o Corpus luteum  Follicle after release of ovum  Continues producing hormones o Ovarian cysts  Can occur when a mature follicle fails to release an egg, possibly causing swelling and pain  Most will resolve without treatment  Polycystic ovarian disease – can impair fertility; treated with hormones o Ovarian cancer  Most deadly form of reproductive cancer among women  Symptoms are vague, and thus early detection is not common o Fallopian tubes – transport ova from ovaries to uterus o 4” long, trumpet-shaped o Fimbriae  Finger-like projections around ovaries  Corral released ova into tubes 9.15 Female Anatomy: Internal Sex Organs  Hysterectomy o Hysterectomy – surgical removal of removal of the uterus o Total hysterectomy – removal of uterus o Radical hysterectomy – removal of uterus, ovaries, and fallopian tubes o Oophorectomy – surgical removal of ovaries o Performed to treat cancer, severe PID/endometriosis/fibroid tumors, rare complications of pregnancy (e.g., some ectopic pregnancies) o 1 in 9 women will have one in her lifetime o US rates have dropped dramatically in recent years due to trends towards less radical treatments Female Anatomy: Menstruation  Occurs when unfertilized lining of endometrium sloughs off and is discharged as bloody flow  Menarche – first menstrual cycle for a young woman o Average age is 12 in the US, but varies from 8-15 o Age of onset related to general health and heredity  Higher body fat  Menstrual cycle – phases o Timing  From first day of flow to last day before next flow  Varies from 24-42 days (average 28 days) o Negative feedback mechanism – process by which variations in hormonal levels trigger changes in levels of other hormones o Menstrual phase  If fertilization hasn’t occurred o Drops in levels of estrogen and progesterone trigger shedding of endometrial tissues  Tends to last 2-7 days (average: 5)  Shedding triggers pituitary gland to release follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) o Proliferative phase  Rise in level of FSH causes several follicles to develop  Developing follicles produce estrogen, causing endometrium to thicken  Peak in estrogen causes pituitary to o Reduce FSH and release luteinizing hormone (LH), resulting in  Ovulation – tends to occur 14 days before start of next period o Secretory phase  Continued LH causes ruptured follicle to transform into corpus luteum, which produces progesterone, causing endometrium to thicken  If no egg implants, pituitary stops producing LH and FSH, which causes corpus luteum to degenerate, reducing levels of estrogen and progesterone (which restarts the cycle)  Problems associated with the menstrual cycle: o Premenstrual syndrome  80-95% of women have some symptoms (e.g., bloating and pain)  5% have premenstrual dysphoric disorder o Involves emotional, behavioral, physical, and cognitive symptoms that significantly interfere with functioning o Treated with SSRIs and/or hormonal birth control o Dysmenorrhea – pain during menstruation o Amenorrhea – absence of menstruation o To reduce menstrual discomfort – exercise regularly, increase intake of fluids and fiber (help with GI), reduce salt (bloating) o Menopause – cessation of menstruation  Signs include cessation of menstruation, hot flashes, and vaginal changes (e.g., dryness)  Many women report primary reaction is relief  Average age of onset is 51 o Hormone replacement therapy – involves taking synthetic estrogen and/or progesterone  Reduces hot flashes and osteoporosis  Increases risk of breast cancer, heart disease, stroke, dementia, blot clots, death from cancer  May help reduce menopausal symptoms; recommendation is to use lowest therapeutic dose, short-term only Female Anatomy: Additional External Sex Organs  Breasts – modified sweat glands that produce milk for nourishment of offspring o Mammary glands – produce milk; 15-25 per breast o Nipple – protuberance containing milk ducts o Areola – pigmented ring around nipple  Breast cancer o Most common form of cancer in women o Risk factors include age, family history, and longer exposure to estrogen (e.g., early menarche, late menopause, no pregnancies or first after 30) o Treatment involves surgery (e.g., mastectomy or lumpectomy), chemotherapy, radiation, and/or medication o Five-year survival rate is 89%  Breast cancer – “ABCs of Breast Health” o Annual mammogram – beginning at age 45 for average-risk women, continuing yearly to age 55 and then every other year as long as you remain in good health o Breast awareness – useful to be familiar with the normal features of your breasts  Breast feeding o Provides superior nutrition compared to formula and cow’s milk o Associated with reduced obesity, higher IQ, disease resistance for baby o Exclusive breastfeeding recommended for first 6 months; suggested continue to at least first birthday o 75% start, but only 23% make it to a year


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