Anatomy and Physiology I, chapter 6 reading notes
Anatomy and Physiology I, chapter 6 reading notes 2200
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Britney Beckett on Monday September 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 2200 at University of Georgia taught by Ann Massey in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views.
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Date Created: 09/19/16
Chapter 6 6.1 The Functions of the Skeletal System (pg. 216-220): Bone (osseous tissue): o Hard, dense connective tissue that forms skeleton. o Supports the body o Bone marrow: Yellow marrow: contains adipose tissue Red marrow: produces blood cells (red, white, platelets) o Mostly inorganic material: Hydroxyapatite- gives bone its hardness and strength o Cells of the bone: Osteoblast-forms new bone through synthesis and secretion of collagen and calcium Osteocyte- osteoblast that is trapped in the matrix it deposited Osteogenic cells: mitotically active bone cells that develop into osteoblasts Osteoclast- breaks down bone Cartilage: o Spongy bone o Semi-ridged connective tissue o Provides flexibility Skeletal system: o System made of bone and cartilage o Functions: Support body Allow movement Point of attachment for muscles Protect organs Produce blood cells Store and release minerals and fats Particularly calcium and phosphorus 6.3 Bone structure (pg. 222-232): Long bone: o Diaphysis: shaft running between proximal and distal end of the bone Composed of dense bone Hollow region known as medullary cavity which contains yellow marrow Contains nutrient foramen- opening through which arteries enter to bring nutrients o Epiphysis: proximal and distal ends of long bone Contain red marrow Composed of spongy bone o Endosteum: inner lining of medullary cavity Site of bone growth, repair, and remodeling o Periosteum: outer cover of bone Contains blood vessels, nerves, lymphatic vessels Covers all of bone except where bone meets bone to form a joint o Articular cartilage: layer of cartilage covering epiphysis Acts as shock absorber Flat bone o Consists of flat layer of spongy bone lined on both sides with compact bone o Markings: Articulation-two bone surfaces come together Projection- region of bone that projects from surface of bone Hole- opening in bone for blood vessels and nerves 6.4 Bone Formation and Development Ossification: process of bone development o Ossification center: early cluster of osteoblast that will eventually spread out to become bone tissue o Intramembranous ossification: compact and spongy bone develop directly from sheets of undifferentiated connective tissue o Endochondral ossification: bone develops by replacing hyaline cartilage Primary ossification center- region deep with in where ossification begins Secondary ossification center- centers of ossification in the epiphyseal regions Reserve zone: region closest to the epiphyseal region where chondrocytes secures epiphyseal plate (growth plate) to osseous tissue. Proliferative zone: next layer towards diaphysis. Contains larger. Site of mitosis of chondrocytes o Appositional growth: Bone growth in diameter Bone grows thicker through intramembranous ossification o Bone remodeling: Restoration of old/ damaged bone 6.5 Fracture: Bone repair Fracture: broken bone Reduction: setting fractured bone back into natural position without surgery Open reduction: setting fracture bone back to natural position using open surgery. 6.7 Calcium Homeostasis: Functions of calcium in the body: o Bone mineralization o Tooth health o Regulation of heart rate and strength of contraction o Blood coagulation o Contraction of muscles o Regulation of nerve impulse conduction Calcium can not be produced through biological process; it must be consumed in diet Bone is the storage site for calcium. Release and absorbs calcium based on bodies need.
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