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ANT 304 Textbook Notes Ch. 3

by: Sena Sarikaya

ANT 304 Textbook Notes Ch. 3 ANT 304

Marketplace > University of Texas at Austin > Anthropology > ANT 304 > ANT 304 Textbook Notes Ch 3
Sena Sarikaya

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About this Document

These notes focus on specific pages from chapter three of the textbook Archaeology and Humanity's Story by Olszewski (2016).
Intro Archaeol Stds: Prehist
Dr. Valdez
Class Notes
Intro to Archaeology, Archaeology, prehistoric, chapter 3, textbook notes
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sena Sarikaya on Monday September 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANT 304 at University of Texas at Austin taught by Dr. Valdez in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Intro Archaeol Stds: Prehist in Anthropology at University of Texas at Austin.


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Date Created: 09/19/16
Textbook Notes Ch. 3 Ch. 3 pg. 62­63 I. Early Waves Out of Africa ­Homo erectus: earliest hominins in genus Homo; 1.9 mil. y.a.; neck down =  skeletally modern human ­best ex. Nariokotome boy (W. Turkana in Kenya) A. Earliest Movement out of Africa ­Dmanisi: 1.7 mil. y.a. site in Rep. of Georgia w/ Homo Erectus fossils, animal  bones, choppers and flakes (Oldowan stone tools) ­complicated b/c some fossils & tools accumulated b/c water flow ­Sangiran: on Island of Java; Homo erectus from 1.6 mil. y.a. ­no directly associated stone tools ­elsewhere there are Oldowan­type flakes & choppers ­not a living site; deposited through river water ­Ubeidiya: 1.5 mil. y.a.; Israel in Levnatine Middle East ­hominins carried out tasks  ­tectonic shifts make layers steeply sloped, not horizontal ­large # of layer types w/ Oldowan stone artifacts, animal bones w/ cut  marks, & one tooth of H. erectus  ­hunting horse & deer ­hominins that leave Africa hunted more than scavenging pg. 66 B. Meanwhile Back in Africa ­ Acheulian: flaked stone tool trad.; bifaces (like hand axes); 1.7 mil. y.a.; not in  middle east until 800,000 y.a. ­lower Paleolithic ­some say deliberately manufactured shapes ­others say portable cores from which sharp edge like flakes were stuck  ­so Acheulian hominins didn’t leave until late OR movement  limited to group using Oldowan tools pg.72­75 II. Modern Humans & Neanderthals  A. Multiregional & Recent Single Origin Models ­multiregionalism (MR) : evolutionary gene flow; modern humans everywhere in  the old world evolved locally from ore archaic hominins b/c gene flow kept  genetics similar enough for interbreeding ­recent single origin (RSO): modern humans originate only form Africa & spread; mod. hum. replaced more archaeological hominins ­both models have fos. & gen. evidence a. Skeletal Anatomy ­until 1980s hominin fossils = main data for origin of mod. human & evol. relationship ­morphology (form) of skeletal elements distinguish H. sapiens, Nean.,  late Asians/ SE Asians, H. erectus ­RSO emphasize disappearance of const. of skeletal features  ­MR emphasize skeletal continuities ­Homo neaderthalensis: hominins in W. Eurasia btwn 250,000 & 30,000 y.a. ­nuclear DNA ­> Neanderthals bred w/ mod. hum. ­sometimes classified subspec. of mod. hum. H. sapiens neaderthalensis ­Sima de los Huesos: site @ Atapuerca area of Spain w/ 28 fossil hominins w/  Neanderthal lineage ­28 fossils thrown by other hominins to deep cavern ­biological adap. to cold stress in glacial Europe to conserve heat ­short limb ­large nasal cavity ­robust ­Omo Kibish & Herto = site in Ethiopia w/ earliest constellation of skeletal  features that characterize human; 195,000 y.a. & 160,000 y.a. pg. 80 III. Origins of Modern Behavior ­does modern human biology & behavior coincide?  ­key feature of mod. beh. = symbolism (including language) ­conceptual problem: view of origin = Eurocentric b/c detailed European  archaeological record  ­but in Africa greater time depth pg. 88­89 A. Disappearance of Neanderthals ­skeletally distinct pop. disappear after 40,000 y.a.  ­what lead to pop. crashes resulting in extinction… ­bio. adap. to cold stress ­lack of cultural technology ­well­built shelters ­tailored clothing ­high energy requirements ­low pop. size & density ­ “volcanic winter” effect ­supports that Nean. didn’t go extinct b/c of lack of mod. beh. but b/c  couldn’t adapt fast enough to ecological change after eruption 40,000 y.a.


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