ANT 304 Textbook Notes Ch. 3
ANT 304 Textbook Notes Ch. 3 ANT 304
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sena Sarikaya on Monday September 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANT 304 at University of Texas at Austin taught by Dr. Valdez in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Intro Archaeol Stds: Prehist in Anthropology at University of Texas at Austin.
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Date Created: 09/19/16
Textbook Notes Ch. 3 Ch. 3 pg. 6263 I. Early Waves Out of Africa Homo erectus: earliest hominins in genus Homo; 1.9 mil. y.a.; neck down = skeletally modern human best ex. Nariokotome boy (W. Turkana in Kenya) A. Earliest Movement out of Africa Dmanisi: 1.7 mil. y.a. site in Rep. of Georgia w/ Homo Erectus fossils, animal bones, choppers and flakes (Oldowan stone tools) complicated b/c some fossils & tools accumulated b/c water flow Sangiran: on Island of Java; Homo erectus from 1.6 mil. y.a. no directly associated stone tools elsewhere there are Oldowantype flakes & choppers not a living site; deposited through river water Ubeidiya: 1.5 mil. y.a.; Israel in Levnatine Middle East hominins carried out tasks tectonic shifts make layers steeply sloped, not horizontal large # of layer types w/ Oldowan stone artifacts, animal bones w/ cut marks, & one tooth of H. erectus hunting horse & deer hominins that leave Africa hunted more than scavenging pg. 66 B. Meanwhile Back in Africa Acheulian: flaked stone tool trad.; bifaces (like hand axes); 1.7 mil. y.a.; not in middle east until 800,000 y.a. lower Paleolithic some say deliberately manufactured shapes others say portable cores from which sharp edge like flakes were stuck so Acheulian hominins didn’t leave until late OR movement limited to group using Oldowan tools pg.7275 II. Modern Humans & Neanderthals A. Multiregional & Recent Single Origin Models multiregionalism (MR) : evolutionary gene flow; modern humans everywhere in the old world evolved locally from ore archaic hominins b/c gene flow kept genetics similar enough for interbreeding recent single origin (RSO): modern humans originate only form Africa & spread; mod. hum. replaced more archaeological hominins both models have fos. & gen. evidence a. Skeletal Anatomy until 1980s hominin fossils = main data for origin of mod. human & evol. relationship morphology (form) of skeletal elements distinguish H. sapiens, Nean., late Asians/ SE Asians, H. erectus RSO emphasize disappearance of const. of skeletal features MR emphasize skeletal continuities Homo neaderthalensis: hominins in W. Eurasia btwn 250,000 & 30,000 y.a. nuclear DNA > Neanderthals bred w/ mod. hum. sometimes classified subspec. of mod. hum. H. sapiens neaderthalensis Sima de los Huesos: site @ Atapuerca area of Spain w/ 28 fossil hominins w/ Neanderthal lineage 28 fossils thrown by other hominins to deep cavern biological adap. to cold stress in glacial Europe to conserve heat short limb large nasal cavity robust Omo Kibish & Herto = site in Ethiopia w/ earliest constellation of skeletal features that characterize human; 195,000 y.a. & 160,000 y.a. pg. 80 III. Origins of Modern Behavior does modern human biology & behavior coincide? key feature of mod. beh. = symbolism (including language) conceptual problem: view of origin = Eurocentric b/c detailed European archaeological record but in Africa greater time depth pg. 8889 A. Disappearance of Neanderthals skeletally distinct pop. disappear after 40,000 y.a. what lead to pop. crashes resulting in extinction… bio. adap. to cold stress lack of cultural technology wellbuilt shelters tailored clothing high energy requirements low pop. size & density “volcanic winter” effect supports that Nean. didn’t go extinct b/c of lack of mod. beh. but b/c couldn’t adapt fast enough to ecological change after eruption 40,000 y.a.