PR Dev I Garment Assm Notes
PR Dev I Garment Assm Notes TMFD112
Popular in Product Development 1: Garment Assembly
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This 15 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kayla Allen on Monday September 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to TMFD112 at University of Nebraska Lincoln taught by Polston in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views.
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Date Created: 09/19/16
Chapter 1: The Sewing Machine and Sewing Equipment 1. Fashion Designer’s Workspace a. A fashion designer is in charge and supervises all people in the department i. Expected to guide and answer all questions a patternmaker or sample maker has b. A fashion designer needs to know how to select fabrics for a design and sew a garment i. Type of seam is determined by the style of the garment and the fiber content ii. Fashion students need to learn how to sew 2. Organize Your Space a. Take time to make sure that all equipment works and ready to use i. Well lighted ii. Large and firm cutting space iii. Ironing board and iron near the sewing machine iv. Full length mirror 3. Measuring Tools and Specialty Rulers a. Most common sewing tools: i. Tape measure 1. 60inch reversible tape 2. used to take various measurements ii. Crotch tape measure 1. 60inch tape with an attached cardboard piece on one end 2. Used to measure inseams iii. Yard stick or meter stick 1. 36inch or 1meter ruler 2. Used to measure hems, grain lines, flat surfaces, and yardage lengths iv. 18inch clear plastic ruler 1. 2inch wide divided into ⅛inch grids 2. Perfect for measuring grain lines and adjusting the pattern at the alteration line v. Sewing gauge 1. 6inch gauge with a movable indicator 2. used to measure areas that need a constant measurement a. Hem widths, pleats, and tucks vi. Simflex buttonhole gauge 1. An expandable measuring device for spacing buttons and buttonholes quickly and automatically vii. Clear plastic fashion ruler 1. A see through plastic ruler 2. See through curved lines allow you to adjust curved lines a. French curve, hip curve, straight ruler b. Made by Fashionetics, Inc viii. Hem marker 1. A device used to measure the distance from the floor to the bottom of the garment ix. French curve ruler 1. 10inch with an edge shaped like a spiral curve 2. Used as a guide to shape and true edges of a neckline, armholes, sleeve caps, darts, crotch seams, lapels, pockets, and collars. 4. Cutting tools a. Common cutting tools: i. Shears 1. Blades are 48 inches long 2. One handle is larger than the other 3. Bent handle shears are excellent for easy cutting of fabric and patterns ii. Scissors 1. 3 to 6 inches 2. Handles are the same size 3. Choose the longest blades possible to cut with when cutting fabric iii. Buttonhole scissors 1. Smalls scissors with sharp points 2. Used to cut button holes iv. Pinking shears 1. Cuts zigzag edge to prevent fabric from fraying 2. Creates a decorative edge on seam allowances a. NOT used when cutting the first pattern or layout v. Seam ripper 1. Small pointed device with sharp blades 2. Pick out unwanted stitches 3. Blade is used to cut a row of stitches vi. Thread nippers 1. Useful for cutting stray threads and clipping small areas 2. Used for trimming thread trails at the beginning and end of seams vii. Trimming scissors 1. 46 inches long with sharp points 2. Used to cut straight seams with a ruler guiding the blade a. Not recommended for cutting curves viii. Rotary cutters 1. A roundblade cutting device 2. Used for cutting straight seams with a ruler guiding the blade a. Not recommended for cutting curves 5. Sewing tools and miscellaneous supplies a. Useful sewing tools and supplies i. Straight pins ii. Handsewing needles 1. Sharp needles a. Size 510 b. All purpose needles 2. Between needles a. Shorter b. Small round eye c. Meant for short, accurate hand stitches i. Tailori ng and other handwork 3. Crewel or embroidery needles a. large , oval eye b. Heavy or multiple strands of thread c. Same length as sharps iii. Thimple iv. Pin cushion or pin dispenser v. Beeswax 1. Strengthen thread and reduce tangling 2. Do not use on dry cleaning clothes vi. Emery cushion vii. Chalk pencils 1. Transfer markings from the pattern to the fabric viii. Tailors chalk 1. Waxy chalk is often used 2. Hemlines or other construction lines 3. Marked on the inside so it won’t show ix. Tracing paper x. Tracing wheel 1. Used to transfer markings a. Wheel portion must be sharp enough to leave an impression, but smooth so it won’t snag the fabric xi. Loop turner 1. Used to turn bias tubing ot belts xii. Safety pins 6. Thread a. Thread choice depends on the fabric, the size of the stitch, and the effect desired b. Common types of thread: i. Corespun thread 1. Suitable for most fabrics 2. Greater strength than spun polyester 3. Mattefinished and melds into a seam well 4. Cottonwrapped polyester can tolerate high temperatures a. Available for industrial sewing ii. Spun polyester thread 1. A string thread made of short lengths of polyester fibers spun together 2. Should be used for stretched and wool fabrics iii. Mercerized cotton thread 1. Cotton thread with a slight sheen a. Available in different thicknesses i. 20 topstitching ii. 40 general machine sewing iii. 50 and 60 fine fabrics and hand sewing b. Use for cotton and linen fabrics iv. Buttonhole twist 1. Thicker thread made of polyester or silk 2. Used for top or hand stitching, buttonholes, and sewing on buttons v. Machine quilting thread 1. Lustrous, strong thread made of pure cotton or cottonwrapped polyester 2. Ideal for hand sewing a. Does not tangle vi. Serger thread 1. Spun polyester 2. Lighter than general sewing thread, usually on a cone 3. Linty or have thick spots a. Not recommended for sewing machines Studio Tip:High quality threads have longer staples and are best for ensuring good machine performance. Thead with shorter staples or waxed threads will obstruct the machine, reducing sewing quality 7. Sewing Machine Needles a. Should coordinate with the type and weight of fabric and the tread size i. If the needle skips, go up a size b. Specified by needle system, by size, and by point style i. Size 8/60 or 9/65 used for sewing fine or sheer fabrics ii. Size 10/70 to 12/80 medium weight fabrics iii. Size 14/90 or 16/100 heavier weight fabrics c. Metric Needle Sizes i. NM = metric size of needle ii. Gives diameter of needle blade in hundredths of a millimeter 1. NM100 = 1mm in diameter d. Industrial Shank vs. Domestic Shank Needles i. Round shank = industrial machines ii. Flat shank = domestic machines 1. Allows for easy replacement and ensures that the needle is in the correct position iii. Common sewing machine needles: 1. See table 1.1 on page 8 for sizes 2. Universal point needle a. Most common b. Suitable for most woven fabrics i. 8/60 through 19/20 3. Ballpoint needle a. Rounded point b. Idea for knit or stretch fabrics i. 8/60 through 19/20 4. Wedge shaped/leather needle a. Specialty needle i. Leathe r, suede, vinyl, artificial leathers ii. 10/70 through 19/120 iii. Not for use on most fabrics 5. Matching thread and needle sizes a. threads should be about half the size in diameter of the needle eye 8. Design room equipment a. Pressing is essential to complete a professionallooking garment b. Helping pieces of pressing equipment i. Ironing board ii. Iron (steam and dry) iii. Needle board iv. Pounding block 1. Strong creases v. Pressing cloth 1. Protect the other side of the garment a. Clean press vi. Pressing mitt 1. Press and maintain contoured seams a. Sleeve caps and areas that should be pressed flat vii. Seam roll 1. To press hard to reach areas like sleeves viii. Sleeve board 1. Press sleeves ix. Tailor’s board 1. Press difficult to reach areas x. Tailor’s ham 1. Used to press contoured seams, darts, collars, and lapels 9. Pressing methods a. Using the correct iron temperature, some pressure, and appropriate pressing tools will ensure that all areas are correctly pressed, and ensures a professionally finished garment b. Iron temperature controls i. If an iron is too hot it may distort, melt, scorch, or leave an impression on the fabric ii. It an iron is too cool, it will not press the fabric c. Steps for pressing seams and darts i. Press all seams flat, to one side. This allows the stitches to settle into the fabric. Then press the seam open ii. Press the excess of darts toward the center of the garment or down. A tailor’s ham helps to build in shape created by the dart iii. Press all seams and darts from the wrong side of the fabric d. Important pressing techniques i. Lift and lower the iron. Do not pull the iron back and forth across the fabric. Pressing is done to shape and flatten seams. Ironing, a side to side motion, is for removing wrinkles ii. Press each area of the garment as it is sewn and before continuing to another sewing step iii. If a flatter, cleaner pressing job is desired, dampen light pressing cloth. Place the damp pressing cloth between the iron and the garment to create more steam. Continue to use the steam setting on the iron and apply a bit more pressure iv. When pressing any napped or pile fabric such as velvet and corduroy, be sure to lay the correct side of the fabric over a needle board and press from the wrong side of the garment v. Use a small seam roll to press long, narrow seams. Use a sleeve board for small areas. 10. Sewing Machines a. Purchasing a sewing machine i. Two categories 1. Household 2. Industrial 11. Industrial Sewing Machines a. Designed for continuous use at high speeds, thousands of stitches per minute, and long hours i. More durable ii. Exceptional stitch quality b. Customized for a single purpose i. Straight stitching, specialty seams, buttonholes, zipper application, bias binding ii. Specialized for different materials being used c. Based on budget and desire for ease of use or versatility 12. Small business / industrial sewing a. Heavier use than household machines b. Usually portable i. Not as fast as standard industrial c. Provide utility stitches 13. Small business / industry sewing, embroideryonly machines 14. Parts on an industrial sewing machine a. Picture on page 14 15. Threading an Industrial Machine a. Threading a machine involves 3 operations i. Winding the bobbin ii. Threading the bobbin case iii. Threading the machine b. Detailed instructions i. Raise the takeup lever and needle to their highest position, using the balance wheel. Raise the presser foot. Place a spool of thread on the spindle holder ii. Guide the thread across the top of the machine into the first thread guide hook iii. Guide the thread down to the right of the tension disk iv. Guide the thread around the tension disk, making sure the thread falls between the two tension disks v. Continue around the tension disk,and guide the thread into and under the tension spring lever vi. Guide the thread back and through the hole of the take up lever, from the right to left vii. Guide the thread down and through the thread guides viii. Guide the thread into the clamp near the needle holder ix. Guide the thread through the eye of the needle. c. Threading a sidemounted industrial machine i. Page 17 16. Household Sewing machines a. Operate at a much slower stitching speeds and include a greater number of functions i. Intended to be general purpose machines 1. Clothing repair and construction 2. Quilting 3. Home decor sewing 4. Crafts ii. Basic sewing machines offer straight stitch, zigzag stitch, adjustable stitch widths and lengths, and a buttonhole function iii. Made to be versatile 1. Functions can be quickly changed by the user b. Household machine categories i. The basic household sewing machine 1. Beginner to basic sewing ii. High fashion and artistic sewing machine iii. Creative fashion and hobby sewing c. Machine styles i. Console style 1. Set into a table 2. Creates a large, flat area for sewing ii. Portable style 1. Set up on any table top iii. Bobbin styles 1. Case style a. Bobbin is loaded into a bobbin case that is then latched into a compartment beneath the needle plate 2. Drop in / top loading style a. Placed into a compartment under the needle plate, making it easier to change bobbins in a console style machine d. Basic Machine Functions Necessary for Fashion Sewing i. Straight stitch ii. Variable stitch length and width iii. Variable needle positions iv. Zigzag stitch and variations v. Buttonhole (single and multiple styles) vi. Misc. utility stitches 1. Blind hem, stretch, edgefinishing e. Recent technology improvements and features i. Page 18 f. Parts of a Household Sewing Machine i. Page 19 17. Overlock / Serger Machines a. The primary purpose is to trim raw edges and overcast the seam edges, creating a clean inside finish and preventing the fabric from raveling. i. Lack bobbins use one or more needle threads and one or more loopers b. Industrial overlock machines i. More stitches per minute than a household machine ii. Professional look c. Household overlock / serger machines i. Combination machines ii. Grown in the last 25 years iii. High stitch rate d. Purchasing a Household Serger i. Comparison shop for price and quality 1. Do not use the same needles as home sewing machines e. What serger machines include i. Page 21 18. Threading a. Threading a needle machine i. Could be threaded in 2 directions 1. Front to back 2. Right to left 3. Left to right b. Winding a bobbin i. Place an empty bobbin on the bobbin winder ii. Place a spool of thread on the spool pin iii. Place the thread through the thread guide iv. Continue to guide the thread from the guide to the empty bobbin. Wind the thread by hand around the bobbin 3 times v. Loosen the wheel tension to stop the movement of the needle. Push the drive mechanism toward the bobbin winder against the balance wheel vi. Run the machine to wind the bobbin. Most will automatically stop winding when the bobbin fills vii. Clip the thread and remove the bobbin from the winder. Tighten the hand wheel once again c. Threading a bobbin case i. Place the bobbin into the bobbin case so that the bobbin thread is in a clockwise direction. Thread will form a 9. ii. Guide the bobbin thread into the slot iii. Pull the thread under the tension spring around and into the notch at the end of the spring. Leave about 3 inches of thread hanging from the bobbin case d. Placing a bobbin with a separate bobbin case i. Page 23 e. Placing a bobbin into a fixed bobbin case i. Page 23 f. Drawing up the bobbin thread i. Page 24 19. Stitching Guidelines and Problem Solving a. Table 1.4 b. Page 25 Chapter 2: Identifying Fashion Fabrics 1. Fabric Texture a. The biggest news in fabrics today is that mills are combining organic fibers with high tech machines i. Was brought about by the continuing search for fabrics with the desirable characteristics of “newness” 2. Fibers a. Fibers are either natural or manufactured b. Natural i. Fibers from plants 1. Cotton, linen, flax, hemp, ramie, maize, and jute ii. Fibers from animals 1. Sheep, angora goat, angora rabbit, camel, and alpaca 2. Buffalo is gaining popularity iii. Fibers from insects 1. Silk c. Manufactured fibers i. Produced using a variety of chemical processes 1. Acetate, acrylic, nylon, polyester, rayon, spandex, fleece, faux fur, and tencel ii. Secondary market for manufactured fiber for industrial applications 1. Developed from longchain synthetic polyamides linked with aromatic rings a. Aramid manufactured fiber that has high levels of toughness and heat resistance b. Does not melt. c. Military and sportswear and bullet resistant armor iii. Major development of the 1990s iv. Most common type are made from polyesters v. Metallic fibers are made into thin strip yarns from gold, copper, silver, stainless steel, and aluminium 1. Woven into fabric by wrapping around a core of another fiber vi. Blends are created when a fiber does not posses adequate properties desired for the intended purpose 1. Cotton and polyester d. EcoFriendly Fibers i. New developments in harvesting and processing of animal and vegetable fibers are resulting in ecofibers, finer denier wools, and thinner and softer yarns ii. Textiles being created from 1. Organic cotton, hemp, linen, ramie, bamboo, soy, maize, and cellulose iii. Also dyes and finishes that conserve energy 1. Wool is a renewable resource iv. Labels and button are also ecofriendly 1. Labels leather, wool, paper, and organic cotton 2. Buttons real horn, vegetable ivory, and mother of pearl e. Blended fabrics i. Fabric blends comprise of two or more different types of fibers twisted or spun together. 1. Qualities are enhanced 2. Greater durability 3. Softer or more luxurious hand 4. Increased wrinkle resistance 5. Reduction or elimination of shrinkage than the original f. Testing fiber content i. Federal law requires all uncut fabric be labeled and identified with the correct fiber content and care instructions 1. Important to know before fabric handling ii. If the content is unknown you can use the burn test, look at ash, or other characteristics iii. Following fibers when burned: 1. Page 30 3. Grain lines a. Indicate yarn direction i. Lengthwise grain is known as the warp 1. Parallel to the selvage of the fabric a. Firmly woven edge that runs the length of the fabric on both sides 2. Warp is the strongest threads and possesses less give than the cross grain ii. Cross grain is the weft 1. filling 2. Runs perpendicular to the lengthwise grain of the fabric from selvage to selvage 3. Slightly more give 4. Places horizontally in the garment for a more fuller look iii. Intersecting the Cross grain and grain is known as the bias direction 1. Possesses significantly more give and stretch than the other two i. 45 degree angle is called true bias iv. Grain will change the shape and drape v. Pay attention to grainline when putting fabrics together 1. Could relax back to natural grain alignment 4. Fabric Construction a. The two most common methods of creating fabrics are weaving and knitting i. Knowing the two methods will lead to the knowledge of creating other weaving processes b. Woven Fabrics i. More stable, easily to see the grainline on ii. Comprises of two sets of yards 1. Warp and weft (filling) a. Cross at right angles iii. Yarn can be interlaced to form plain weave, twill weave, or satin weave 1. Plain weave a. Weft passes over and under of the warp yarn going in the opposite direction 2. Twill weave a. Recognized by the diagonal lines in the fabric. Yarns cross at least two yarns before going under one more yarn 3. Satin weave a. Yarn goes over one ad under several to create more luster on the correct side of the fabric iv. Common woven fabrics 1. Examples a. Corduroy, denim, flannel, gingham, linen, velvet c. Knits i. Important characteristic is its ability to stretch ii. Constructed by interlocking looped yarns, and any fiber can be knitted into the fabric iii. Types of Knits 1. Single Knit a. One set of needles is used to form loops across the fabric width b. Single and jersey knits are light to medium weight fabrics. c. Stretch 20% across the grain d. Flat vertical ribs on the right side of the fabric and horizontal lines dominate the wrong side i. Used for tshirts 2. Double knit a. Two sets of needles are used i. Giving both sides of the fabric similar appearance b. Medium heavyweight i. Good body shape and retention 3. Tricot knit a. Several loops formed in a lengthwise direction b. Made from very fine yarn c. Right side of these knits has vertical ribs and crosswise stretch i. Used for lingerie and lightweight linings iv. Common knit fabrics 1. Acrylic, polyester, cotton, wool, or blends. 2. Fleece, or recycled plastic material 5. Organic and Natural Fabrics a. Organic fabrics i. Conditions that apply to the production of organic fabrics 1. No use of pesticides 2. No use of chemical additives 3. No use of substances harmful to the health of humans or animals 4. No use of invasive techniques for looking after animals b. Natural fabrics i. Produced from natural fibers, but do not have to be manufactured under the organic standards 1. Cotton plant 2. Linen that is processed from flax plant 3. Wool from sheep 4. Silk from silkworms c. Technological advances i. Making it possible to intimidate all the natural fibers d. Cotton i. Words principle clothing fabric 1. Affordable 2. Easy care 3. Strength 4. Comfort 5. Durability ii. Two differences of organic and produced cotton: 1. Organic must comply with organic producers’ standards and the finishing processes used in fabric production iii. Cotton categories (page 34) 1. Lightweight 2. Mediumweight 3. Heavyweight 6. Pattern Markings a. In notebook
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