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Psychology of Personality, Lecture 1

by: Notetaker Magazzu

Psychology of Personality, Lecture 1 PSY 01230 1

Marketplace > Rowan University > Psychology (PSYC) > PSY 01230 1 > Psychology of Personality Lecture 1
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These notes include material from Professor Tom Dinzeo’s first PowerPoint lecture, as well as my in-class notes following each slide.
Psychology of Personality
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Notetaker Magazzu on Monday September 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 01230 1 at Rowan University taught by Dinzeo in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see Psychology of Personality in Psychology (PSYC) at Rowan University.

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Date Created: 09/19/16
Psychology of Personality The following notes include material from Professor Tom Dinzeo’s first PowerPoint lecture, as  well as my in­class notes following each slide. Personality – complex organization of cognitions, affects, and behavior that give direction and  pattern to a person’s life. (Pervin, 1996) ­many people believe that personality reflects both experience and biology ­also involves how we think of ourselves ­May reflect our genes and also life experiences ­personality affects the behaviors we choose to engage in ­tendencies to react certain ways in certain situations ­all relevant and complex things that interact with each other over time Theories differ on their emphasis on: ­Overt observable differences  ex:) trait theories ­The processes that drive behavior  ex:) unconscious urges vs. genetics ­specific domains of characteristics (high/low) that people use in their theories  ­to attempt to explain our "personalities"… How we are/why we do things Why do we need to know about someone's "personality"? (Why is this concept useful?) ­helps us simplify a complex world ­we intuitively perceive continuity in people's behaviors and reactions ­wide array of people engaging in many different behaviors ­you can predict one's future behavior based off of their previous behavior patterns ­theories are the best attempts to explain the behaviors that we engage in ­we all have intuitive theories of personality  ex:) when you meet someone you initially think to yourself, "is this person a threat to me?" What are theories?  ­An organizing principle that seek to explain events/phenomena ­Each theory views phenomena through a particular lens (each theory sees the world through a  different lens) ­each have strengths and weaknesses ­what you think drives certain behaviors will determine how you theorize your plans Perspectives ­The analogy of many different scientists looking at a different, small part of a large elephant all  see a different things and come to different conclusions through their small, different lenses.  ­when you focus on a certain "circumference" of a phenomenon, you can determine your  conclusion which may be completely different than someone else's ­dealing with the same thing from different perspectives ­all perspectives have their own ideas, but missing the real point Ideally, theories should: ­be detailed and precise  ­have heuristic value ­The testicle and falsifiable... Because we assume there may be issues within our theories… We  want to be able to fix issues as we move along with the scientific method ­parsimony is also desirable... Go with the more simple/streamline theory went two theories are  very similar ­you should be able to have clear ideas within your theories How do we study and test theories? "Research"  ­ see if theory predicts outcome Scientific method ­systematic way of gathering scientific evidence and testing assumptions ­self correcting ­slow process ­able to show other labs what you found that may be relevant to other research, even if it's  something you find that is incorrect from your original thought/hypothesis Over time, you come up with a more accurate picture Qualitative studies ­Data analysis = words ­goal = summary/comparison of what people have said ­looking at people's verbiage/speaking ­experiences Quantitative studies ­Data analysis = numbers ­Goal = statistical summary/comparison of numbers ­using numbers to derive statistics *­combining qualitative and quantitative is called a mixed method approach Methods of Observation •case study      ­an in­depth examination of one person or small group      ­can be rich in information      ­good for theory development      ­used in instances where there's a need to retrospectively go back and do interviews (example: a school shooter) Drawbacks of case study approach? ­poor generalizability     ­does our understanding of a certain case study (school shooter) help us prevent/understand  future school shootings? No... (Poor generalizability) ­variables cannot be controlled ­May be biased by reporting errors or distortions Correlational method ­determine the association between two qualitative variables ­The correlation coefficient (r) indicates the magnitude of this association (can be positive or  negative) ­apply correlational method to determine association... The range of our = ­1 to +1 ­perfect positive correlations are "never" seen in psychology ­no correlation means no trend in behaviors *­correlation does not mean causation ­for example, ice cream sales go up as violence rates go down ­ice cream does not cause people to be violent ­there are other factors, "extraneous variables" that can be confounding our results (The sun, nice weather, the season of summer…) Experimental method ­attempt to control all extraneous variables ­manipulate one variable (independent variable) ­see how this change affects another variable (dependent variable) How do you design a study looking at the effectiveness of medication on depression using  the experimental method? ­Random assignment ­have a control group ­execute a screening process to determine people's levels of depression to determine even groups  based off of their baselines (you can't have a group with a depressed people and another group  with no depressed people) ­you want to control as much as you can before beginning the experiment (The more you have  under control, the more confident you'll be heading into your experiment) ­drawback: if your experiment is too controlled,  it's no longer a "real life" situation, it's  unrealistic Reliability ­The extent to which a test yields the same result on repeated trials Degree of stability, consistency, predictability and accuracy ­you want to ask yourself if your situation is consistent over time... Example: there is a reliable  way of timing athletes in the Olympics so the timing system is reliable and athletes' statistics are  able to be compared to previous/future Olympic athletes' times Validity ­The degree to which something measures what it was intended to measure ­we deal with constructs (schizophrenia) in psychology ­any definition we have for schizophrenia is limited by our construct of schizophrenia ­there are limitations of how we see, define, and deal with certain things, such as schizophrenia The difference between Reliability and Validity ­A test can be reliable, but not valid ­The opposite is not possible ­a clock is reliable if it moves at a proper 60 seconds per minute, even if you move it an hour  ahead ­A clock is not valid of present time if you move it ahead one hour Test­Retest Reliability ­Administering a test to the same group of people at least twice ­correlate scores across time ­higher correlations across time points denotes greater test – retest reliability ­if you have low retest over thousands of people, chances are... the way that your testing  them/gathering information is off ­test retest has to be determined by interpretation of the construct •Intelligence… Steady scores over six months •Depression… (Hopefully) higher to lower scores overtime Internal Consistency Reliability ­how well items on a test assess the same characteristic ­average correlation between all possible pairs of items ­allows us to find the items that don't seem to correlate with other aspects of evaluation, and take  them out Inter­Rater Reliability ­examine correlations between two people rating the same thing ­example: two researchers code the verbal responses of students watching a movie ­help determine if you and another psychologist are diagnosing things in the same way Common Indicators of Validity ­Face validity  • does a test appear to be measuring what it is intended to measure? ­example: "I feel sad most of the time" on a test of depression • A problem with this would be that people can stretch the truth, may be embarrassed, or may  interpret questions differently Construct Validity ­The degree of agreement between a theoretical concept ("construct") and a test ­what does the concept of "depression" involve? ­look for evidence of convergent and discriminant validity ­are we asking about all aspects regarding the construct? (sleep, eating, social, etc...) Convergent Validity ­two tests of the same construct correlate highly with each other ­look to see how our scores correlate with previous studies of depression for example… They  should correlate highly Discriminant Validity ­Low correlation with results from tests of unrelated constructs ­we wouldn't expect people with high levels of depression to have high levels of happiness Criterion Validity ­The accuracy of the test when compared with a known validated "criterion" test •ex: The use of drugs ­not always a good standard to compare data to… We do our best ­you can't biologically test people every day, but maybe you can randomly test people instead ­criterion validity can be "predictive" or "concurrent" ­can we use our data to protect a larger group's? Examples of threats to validity ­language or cultural differences ­test­taker distortions • response sets • intentional lying • defensiveness ­person responding may just always say "yes" or answer the way they think the researcher wants  them to


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