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Ecology Class Notes Week 3

by: Naomi Hampton

Ecology Class Notes Week 3 BIOL 3060

Marketplace > Auburn University > Ecology > BIOL 3060 > Ecology Class Notes Week 3
Naomi Hampton

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About this Document

These notes cover the lectures from the week of 8/30/16. They include macro/microclimate, temporal variation, biomes, ecological organization, and physical environments.
Principles of Ecology
Dr. John Feminella
Class Notes
Ecology, biomes, hierarchy, microclimate
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Naomi Hampton on Monday September 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 3060 at Auburn University taught by Dr. John Feminella in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Principles of Ecology in Ecology at Auburn University.

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Date Created: 09/19/16
BIOL 3060 8/30/16  Macro/Microclimate Variation: o Spatial: variation across some space  Local  Vegetation canopy o Abovehigh light, higher temp, lower humidity o Belowless light, lower temp, higher humidity  Soil-variable o Morning: soil temp < air, acts as heat sink (absorbs heat) o Late afternoon: soil temp > air, varies as heat source (radiates heat) o Overnight: soil temp ≤ air, varies as heat sources/heat sink o Ex: lizards-active in early morning, expose selves to sun to warm up, burrow overnight to protect from predators, can leave sun to go to heated soil to monitor/regulate temps o Geographic: aspect (topographic angle)  Southern-facing slopes (side towards equator) (Northern hemisphere)-species that are light tolerant (could be most shade intolerant species)  Northern-facing slopes have more shade tolerant species (mosses, etc.) o Key variables in macro/microclimate:  Latitude: measured distance from equator  Lower temp/humidity farther away from equator  Elevation/altitude: distance above sea level o Closer to sea level=more humid/warmer  Aspectsouth facing more humid/warmer  Distance from coastline: closer to coast=wetter, farther inland=drier o Temporal (time) Variation Type Mechanism Outcome Activity Level Daily Earth’s Diel periodicity Diurnalday active Rotation (24hr cycle) Nocturnalnight active Crepusculardawn/dusk Lunar Sun & Moon Tide (~29 days) Movement/reproduction activity on (intertidal species) Earth Grunion/palolo worms Annual Earth’s Orbit Seasons/seasonality Migration Growth Exposure Reproduction o Biomes (cont.)  Tropical Forest  low latitudes  hot year round, wet or dry climate  central/south America, Africa, southern Asia  Tropical Wet (rain) Forest  Deciduous vegetation  High diversity (angiosperms)  Moderately long growing season  High above-ground biomass  High animal diversity o Amazon River: >3000 species (vs. North America: 800)  Tropical Dry Forest  Warm year-round  More seasonal (dry season)  Mostly deciduous species  Tolerant of low precipitation  High animal diversity  Prairie (Temperate Grassland)  Warm-dry summer, cool/cold winter  Same latitude as temperature forests  Lie in rain shadows, far from coasts  Few trees; scrubby vegetation, grasses  Fires occur regularly-important natural disturbance o Can be due to lightning strikes on dry grass  Cone flower, squirrel tail, bison  Tropical Grassland (Savanna)  Low latitudes  Lies in rain shadows far from coasts  Long dry season, warm to hot year-round  South America, Africa, India, northern Australia  Mostly grasses/scrubby vegetation  Trees often small and widely spaced  Fires are important disturbance  Acacia tree, Indian elephant, African elephant  Chaparral (Mediterranean Woodland)  Moderate latitudes, usually in rain shadows  Western North America, Mediterranean Sea  Hot-dry summer, mild wet winter  Woody shrubs and bushes  Lie in rain shadows to east of mountains  Blue oak, sagebrush, manzanita, blacktail Jackrabbit  Desert  Usually ~30degrees N and S latitude (20% of land surface)  Western north America, Africa, Asia Australia  Dry year round (<25cm rain/year)  Low soil organic matter (sand)  Sparse vegetation  Joshua trees, cactaii  Plant adaptations: o Swollen stems o Sunken stomata o Thick waxy cuticles  Marine  All latitudes  Aquatic, variable depths  High salinity (>32ppt)(mostly constant)  Sparse vegetation  Sea anemone, sea turtle & commensal fish, coral reef community, kelp forest  Fresh Water  All latitudes  Aquatic, variable depths  Low salinity (<<32ppt)  Occasional vegetation  Lentic (lake)-very little water movement  Lotic (stream)-flowing 9/1/16  Hierarchical Levels of Ecological Organization Holism Reductionism Understanding Low High High o Individual o Population o Community o Ecosystem o Landscape o Region o Biosphere  Terrestrial vs. AquaticPhysical Environment Property Water Air Significance to aquatic spp. Density of Medium High Low Needs less support (Pro) Viscosity High Low Meet w/greater resistance (Con) Nutrient/mineral High Low Reduced metabolic availability cost (Pro) Oxygen availability Low High Low O 2Con) Specific heat High Low Lower temp variability (Pro & Con) Water availability High Low Pro Light Low High ConRestricted to euphotic zone  Physical environment: BiosphereInd=Biological Systems o Energy use (Processing) o Inputs (fuel)BiosOutputs (wastes)-“steady state” o When inputs > outputs=storage o When inputs < outputs=energy deficit o Key attributehigh organization o Entropytendency to go from organized to disorganized structure o Thermodynamic Laws  Energy is constantTransformation of energy from higher to lower state  Tendency for disorder (entropy)  Water: o Sources in biosphere:  Vapor (gas)  Fresh Surface water (inc. soil)  Groundwater (aquifers)  Saltwater (marine)  Snow & Ice  Living Organisms o Relative abundance of H 2  Oceans97.2% of all water  Snow & ice2%  Groundwater0.07%  Surface water (soil/biota)<0.05%


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