Ecology Class Notes Week 3
Ecology Class Notes Week 3 BIOL 3060
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Naomi Hampton on Monday September 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 3060 at Auburn University taught by Dr. John Feminella in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Principles of Ecology in Ecology at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 09/19/16
BIOL 3060 8/30/16 Macro/Microclimate Variation: o Spatial: variation across some space Local Vegetation canopy o Abovehigh light, higher temp, lower humidity o Belowless light, lower temp, higher humidity Soil-variable o Morning: soil temp < air, acts as heat sink (absorbs heat) o Late afternoon: soil temp > air, varies as heat source (radiates heat) o Overnight: soil temp ≤ air, varies as heat sources/heat sink o Ex: lizards-active in early morning, expose selves to sun to warm up, burrow overnight to protect from predators, can leave sun to go to heated soil to monitor/regulate temps o Geographic: aspect (topographic angle) Southern-facing slopes (side towards equator) (Northern hemisphere)-species that are light tolerant (could be most shade intolerant species) Northern-facing slopes have more shade tolerant species (mosses, etc.) o Key variables in macro/microclimate: Latitude: measured distance from equator Lower temp/humidity farther away from equator Elevation/altitude: distance above sea level o Closer to sea level=more humid/warmer Aspectsouth facing more humid/warmer Distance from coastline: closer to coast=wetter, farther inland=drier o Temporal (time) Variation Type Mechanism Outcome Activity Level Daily Earth’s Diel periodicity Diurnalday active Rotation (24hr cycle) Nocturnalnight active Crepusculardawn/dusk Lunar Sun & Moon Tide (~29 days) Movement/reproduction activity on (intertidal species) Earth Grunion/palolo worms Annual Earth’s Orbit Seasons/seasonality Migration Growth Exposure Reproduction o Biomes (cont.) Tropical Forest low latitudes hot year round, wet or dry climate central/south America, Africa, southern Asia Tropical Wet (rain) Forest Deciduous vegetation High diversity (angiosperms) Moderately long growing season High above-ground biomass High animal diversity o Amazon River: >3000 species (vs. North America: 800) Tropical Dry Forest Warm year-round More seasonal (dry season) Mostly deciduous species Tolerant of low precipitation High animal diversity Prairie (Temperate Grassland) Warm-dry summer, cool/cold winter Same latitude as temperature forests Lie in rain shadows, far from coasts Few trees; scrubby vegetation, grasses Fires occur regularly-important natural disturbance o Can be due to lightning strikes on dry grass Cone flower, squirrel tail, bison Tropical Grassland (Savanna) Low latitudes Lies in rain shadows far from coasts Long dry season, warm to hot year-round South America, Africa, India, northern Australia Mostly grasses/scrubby vegetation Trees often small and widely spaced Fires are important disturbance Acacia tree, Indian elephant, African elephant Chaparral (Mediterranean Woodland) Moderate latitudes, usually in rain shadows Western North America, Mediterranean Sea Hot-dry summer, mild wet winter Woody shrubs and bushes Lie in rain shadows to east of mountains Blue oak, sagebrush, manzanita, blacktail Jackrabbit Desert Usually ~30degrees N and S latitude (20% of land surface) Western north America, Africa, Asia Australia Dry year round (<25cm rain/year) Low soil organic matter (sand) Sparse vegetation Joshua trees, cactaii Plant adaptations: o Swollen stems o Sunken stomata o Thick waxy cuticles Marine All latitudes Aquatic, variable depths High salinity (>32ppt)(mostly constant) Sparse vegetation Sea anemone, sea turtle & commensal fish, coral reef community, kelp forest Fresh Water All latitudes Aquatic, variable depths Low salinity (<<32ppt) Occasional vegetation Lentic (lake)-very little water movement Lotic (stream)-flowing 9/1/16 Hierarchical Levels of Ecological Organization Holism Reductionism Understanding Low High High o Individual o Population o Community o Ecosystem o Landscape o Region o Biosphere Terrestrial vs. AquaticPhysical Environment Property Water Air Significance to aquatic spp. Density of Medium High Low Needs less support (Pro) Viscosity High Low Meet w/greater resistance (Con) Nutrient/mineral High Low Reduced metabolic availability cost (Pro) Oxygen availability Low High Low O 2Con) Specific heat High Low Lower temp variability (Pro & Con) Water availability High Low Pro Light Low High ConRestricted to euphotic zone Physical environment: BiosphereInd=Biological Systems o Energy use (Processing) o Inputs (fuel)BiosOutputs (wastes)-“steady state” o When inputs > outputs=storage o When inputs < outputs=energy deficit o Key attributehigh organization o Entropytendency to go from organized to disorganized structure o Thermodynamic Laws Energy is constantTransformation of energy from higher to lower state Tendency for disorder (entropy) Water: o Sources in biosphere: Vapor (gas) Fresh Surface water (inc. soil) Groundwater (aquifers) Saltwater (marine) Snow & Ice Living Organisms o Relative abundance of H 2 Oceans97.2% of all water Snow & ice2% Groundwater0.07% Surface water (soil/biota)<0.05%
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