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by: Danie Kwong Moses

AstronomyHw1AnswersExplanations.pdf ASTR 1010K (, McGimsey, Astronomy of the Solar System)

Danie Kwong Moses
GPA 3.4
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This is corrected homework and note content...
Astronomy 87548 Lab
Ben McGimsey
Class Notes
astronomy, Physics




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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Danie Kwong Moses on Monday September 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ASTR 1010K (, McGimsey, Astronomy of the Solar System) at Georgia State University taught by Ben McGimsey in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Astronomy 87548 Lab in Physics and Astronomy at Georgia State University.

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Date Created: 09/19/16
Astronomy 1010 Homework Set 3 1. The occasional westward (left to right) motion of planets across the celestial sphere is called: a.) retrograde rotation b.) retrograde revolution c.) retrograde motion (Galelio noticed, or Tycho ?) d.) reverse motion 2. The shape of Mars’s orbit around the Sun is best described as a(n): a.) ellipse b.) circle c.) hyperbola d.) parabola 3. The Sun is at one focus of the Earth’s elliptical orbit. What is at the other focus? Keplers Law a.) our Moon b.) Jupiter c.) Venus d.) nothing 4. An orbit with which of the following eccentricities is most circular? a.) 0.10 b.) 0.25 c.) 0.72 d.) 0.90 5. In what phase is Venus closest to the Earth? a.) new b.) quarter phase c.) full d.) gibbous phase 6. What assumption made Copernicus’ heliocentric cosmology no more accurate than geocentric cosmology? a.) That the sidereal period is the true orbital period of any astronomical body. b.) That the synodic period is the time that elapses between successive identical configurations. c.) That Mars and Venus must be closer to the Sun than is the Earth. d.) That planets orbit the Sun along circular paths. 7. However, Copernicus’ model of the Solar System was superior to the geocentric model because a.) it had a mathematical basis. b.) it was much more accurate. (proposed sun, not earth, was center) c.) it did not require epicycles.- d.) it fit Tycho’s data better. 8. Galileo observed that Jupiter has moons. From this information, you can conclude a.) Jupiter is the center of the Solar System. b.) Jupiter orbits the Sun. c.) Jupiter orbits the Earth d.) Some things do not orbit the Earth. 9. A new force must be acting when an object a.) Accelerates. b.) Changes direction but not speed c.) Changes speed but not direction. d.) All of the above. 2 3 2 3 10. For Earth, P = a , or, alternatively, P /a = 1. Suppose a new planet is discovered that is 14 times as far from the Sun as the Earth is. For this planet a.) P /a = 1.0. b.) P /a > 1.0. 2 3 c.) P /a < 1.0. 2 3 d.) One can’t know the value of P /a without more information. 11. The time it takes for a planet to return to the same position relative to the Sun as seen from the Earth is called the a.) Synodic. Think: this is synonomous to the lunar synodic period of concluding all possible faces anf phases because phases are caused by the ‘location relative to the sun’ (how light hits the planetary object, allowing us to see different faces) b.) Sidereal. Think: this is the amount of time is would take for the planet to reach the same position once again in space, using the stars as reference points. c.) Heliocentric. d.) Geocentric. OFFICE HOURS NOTES 1. The term “universe” is not used in the hierarchy of our address description: Local Group Lakia Supercluster Galaxy Solar System 2. The universe is approximately 3 billion years old 3. Distance is measured by LightYears 4. A PRINCIPLE IS A WIDELY RECOGNIZED FACT, WHILE A THEORY is something that is challengeable. 5. Astronomy is an Observational not physical science Important QuizConcept:  The relationshipbetweena planet’s A.U (Astronomical Unit – using the earth’s distancefrom the sun as a unit of measurement)anda planetaryorbit eccentricityhas a positiveanddirect relationshipwiththe eccentricityof that planets orbit.The largerthe A.U would be highereccentricity, usually. 1. Orbits of planets are ellipses with the Sun at one focus (and NOTHING at the other foci): see image. The followingimage is a screenshot of one of the online simulations that I hope you didnot take the pains to work with. 2. “Law of Equal Areas” – on the path of a planets orbit,even though an oval may be larger andwider thana circle,the planet will be speedingup to cover more of the distance inorder to “sweeps out” (travelacross distance) equal areas of the orbit in equal times. In other words, the velocityof a planetdoes alter dependingon where it located. Planetsspeed up as they approach the sun. 3. P2 = a3WhereP is orbitalperiodin years anda is the semi- major axis(averagedistance from the Sun in A.U.) Galileo – telescopic observations – discovery of sunspots, mountains and craters on the Moon, Jupiter’s moons, Venus’ phases. All of these were observations in favor of the heliocentric model, but the last two conclusively proved it. synodic vs sidereal period of a planet The Best Time to view a planet… …is dependent on if this planet is… Superior (AU greaterthan 1; is ‘past Earth’: Mars, JupiterSaturn, Uranus, Neptune) or Inferior. (AU less than 1; is closer to the sun thanEarth is: Mercury, Venus) Configuration Opposition (for superior planet) Greatest Elongation (for inferior planets) Understandthefollowing: velocityvs.speed velocityaccounts for thedirectionthat the object is movingin, whilespeedmeasures the amount of distance displacedwithina certainamount of time.If no forces act upoun an object to stopor retardthe movement(E.G frictionalresistance,gravity,)the object will stayin motion acceleration a changein directioncounts as a change inacceleration,just as we also more commonlyknow that change in speedis the more common understandingof thisterm refers to. This measurement multipliedbythe mass of an object will yieldthemeasurementof force that is acting upon theobject, andthis is Newtons 2 Law of Motion momentum mass * velocity an object can onlybeginto have momentumwhen it is in motion. Every object that is in motionis inthis state because a force acted upon it.The force was equallymet with an equal and opposite rd force…whichis Newtons 3 Law of Motion Angular momentum Mass x velocityx [distance from centerof motion] Force is simply a push or a pull. The term “universe” is not used in the hierarchy of our address description:


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