9/19 Intro to Psych Chapter 4 Notes
9/19 Intro to Psych Chapter 4 Notes PSYC 1000
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jessica Cialone on Monday September 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 1000 at University of Colorado Denver taught by Liza Lizcano in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Colorado Denver.
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Date Created: 09/19/16
Intro to Psych September 19, 2016 Chapter 4: Sensation and Perception Sensation- detection of energy, sense organs detect physical energy Perception- how the brain interprets the signal 1. Sensation a. Transduction- stimuluselectric signal b. Sense receptor- specialized cell c. Sensory adaptation- when we have a high activation when we first notice the signal but over time ex. Traffic noise after first moving into a house next to the high way but after living there for several years it becomes background noise 2. Psychophysics Fechner invented/discovered a. Absolute threshold i. Lowest level of stimuli that we can detect 50% of the time b. Just noticeable difference (JNB) i. The smallest change we can detect c. Weber’s Law i. The proportional relationship between JNB and original intensity d. Signal detection theory i. Signal-to-noise ratio It is hard to find a signal if there is lots of noise ii. Response biases If stimulus is present and the response is “Yes”true positive If stimulus is present and the response is “No” false negative (miss) If stimulus is absent and the response is “Yes”false positive (false alarm) If stimulus is absent and the response is “No”true negative (correct rejection) e. Specific nerve energies i. There are many different stimuli but how we receive them depends on receptors ii. Phosphine- receptor cells in our eyes f. McGurk Effect g. Synesthesia i. When people’s senses cross ex. See sound, taste colors 3. Attention a. Selective attention- focusing on one stimulus, ignoring others i. Cocktail party effect- when you hear your name you automatically tune in to that conversation b. Unintentional blindness i. Ignoring stimuli that is right in front of you because your focus is on something else c. Change blindness i. Fail to detect changes in the environment d. Binding Problem-how our brains combine stimuli into a whole i. Rapid processing 4. Light a. Visible light i. 400-700 nanometers b. Terms i. Brightness- intensity of color ii. Hue- color of an object iii. Additive- when you mix lights together iv. Subtractive- when you mix pigments 5. The Eye a. Myopia i. Near sightedness, you can see up close, you cannot see far away b. Hyperopia i. Far sightedness, you can see far away, you cannot see up close 6. Shapes and Contour a. Different cells respond to different types of stimuli b. Feature detector cells- detect features, lines and edges i. Simple cells- slits in a specific orientation and location ii. Complex cells- slits in a specific orientation 7. Color Perception a. Trichromatic theory- based on three primary colors: blue, green and red i. Color blindness- when people cannot see all colors, dichromate b. Opponent Process Theory i. three pairs of opponent cells, when you stare at one color for about 30 seconds and look at a white blank page you will see the other (opponent) color red-green blue-yellow black-white 8. Eye Malfunctions a. Blindness i. Vision less than or equal to 20/200 on eye chart b. Blind sight i. When your brain doesn’t measure visual input c. Visual Agnosia i. People can describe objects but cannot name it
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