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BSCI 201: Anatomy & Physiology Chapter 3 Notes- Part 1

by: mehrnazighani Notetaker

BSCI 201: Anatomy & Physiology Chapter 3 Notes- Part 1 BSCI201

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Chapter 3: Cells
Human Anatomy and Physiology 1
Justicia Opoku-Edusei
Class Notes
cells, tissues, celljunctions, anatomy, Anatomyandphysiology, Anatomy& Physiology, Science, Physiology, cellmembranes, Biology, Diffusion, activetransport, passivetransport, Osmosis, Molecules, Chemistry
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by mehrnazighani Notetaker on Monday September 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BSCI201 at University of Maryland - College Park taught by Justicia Opoku-Edusei in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 37 views.


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Date Created: 09/19/16
. Cell theory: ­ Cell: the structural and functional unit of life ­ How well the entire organism functions depends on individual and combined activities of all of its cells ­ Biochemical functions of cells are directed by shape of cell and specific subcellular structures ­ Continuity of life has cellular basis ­ Cells differ in shape, size, and subcellular components which lead to different functions (Fig. 3.1) ­ Erythrocytes (RBCs), epithelial, and fibroblasts connect body parts or transport gases ­ Macrophages fight disease and skeletal muscle cells and smooth muscle cells move organs ­ All cells have some common structures and functions . Human cells have 3 basic parts: 1. Plasma membrane: flexible outer boundary 2. Nucleus: contains DNA 3. Cytoplasm: intracellular fluid containing organelles . Extracellular materials: substances found outside cells 1. Extracellular fluids:  Interstitial fluid: cells are bathed in this fluid  Blood plasma: fluid of the blood  Cerebrospinal fluid: fluid surrounding nervous system organs 2. Cellular secretions such as mucus and saliva 3. Extracellular matrix: substance that acts as a glue to hold cells together in tissues . Plasma membrane (cell membrane): (Fig. 3.3) ­ Acts as an active barrier separating intracellular fluid (ICF) from extracellular fluid (ECF) ­ Controls what enters and what leaves the cell ­ Consists of a flexible lipid bilayer that have membrane proteins which results in changing patterns referred to as fluid mosaic pattern ­ Surface sugars form Glycocalyx ­ Membrane structures help to hold cells together through cell junctions ­ Lipid bilayer is made of:  75% phospholipids, which consist of 2 parts: 1. Phosphate heads (hydrophilic and polar) 2. Fatty acid tails (hydrophobic and nonpolar)  5% glycolipids . Lipids with sugar groups on outer membrane surface  20% cholesterol . Increases viscosity and stability of the membrane ­ Membrane proteins: . Allow cell communication with environment . Makeup about half the mass of plasma membrane . Most have specialized membrane functions . Some float freely and some are connected to intracellular structures . 2 types of proteins: (Fig. 3.4) 1. Integral 2. Peripheral . Integral proteins: o Inserted into membrane o Most are transmembrane proteins (span membrane) o Have hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions o Function as transport proteins (channels), enzymes, or receptors . Peripheral proteins: o Not embedded in the lipid bilayer o Loosely attached to integral proteins o Function as enzymes, cell to cell connections, and motor proteins for shape change during cell division and muscle contraction ­ Glycocalyx:  Consists of sugars sticking out of cell surface  Every cell has different patterns of this sugar coating  Some sugars attached to lipids  glycolipids  Some sugars attached to proteins  glycoproteins  Functions as specific markers for cell to cell recognition  Allow the immune system to recognize itself vs. non-self cells  Glycocalyx of some cancer cells change rapidly that the immune system can’t recognize the cell as being damaged . Cell junctions: ­ Some cells such as sperm and erythrocytes (RBCs) are not bound to any other cells ­ Most cells are bound to form tissues and organs ­ 3 types of junctions: 1. Tight junctions 2. Desmosomes 3. Gap junctions  Tight junctions: (Fig. 3.5a) o Prevent fluids and most molecules from moving in between cells o Integral proteins on adjacent cells fuse to form an impermeable junction that encircles the whole cell o Useful to prevent leakage such as the digestive track and the urinary bladder  Desmosomes: (Fig. 3.5b) o Linker proteins of neighboring cells interlock like the teeth of a zipper o Linker protein is anchored to its cell through thickened areas on inside of plasma membrane called plaques o Keratin filaments connect plaques intracellularly for added anchoring strength o Useful to counteract mechanical stress such as skeletal muscles and the cardiac muscle  Gap junctions: (Fig. 3.5c) o Transmembrane proteins form tunnels that allow small molecules to pass from cell to cell o Used to spread ions, sugars, or other molecules o Allow electrical signals to be passed quickly from one cell to the next cell o Used in cardiac and smooth muscle cells . Plasma membranes are selectively permeable: ­ 2 ways which substances can cross membrane: 1. Passive processes (no ATP required) 2. Active processes (ATP required)  Passive transport: 2 types: 1. Diffusion: 1. Simple diffusion 2. Osmosis 3. Carrier and channel mediated facilitated diffusion 2. Filtration: usually occurs across capillary walls . Diffusion: going from high concentration to low concentration (Fig. 3.6) ­ Difference is called concentration gradient ­ Rate of diffusion is influenced by size of molecule and temp. ­ Molecules have natural drive to diffuse down concentration gradients that exist between extracellular and intracellular areas ­ Plasma membranes stop diffusion and create concentration gradients by acting as permeable membranes ­ If plasma membrane is damaged, substances diffuse freely into and out of cells, compromising concentration gradients ­ Molecules that passively diffuse through membrane include: 1. Lipid soluble and nonpolar substances 2. Very small molecules 3. Large molecules assisted by carrier molecules ­ Facilitated diffusion: certain hydrophobic molecules are transported down their concentration gradient by: 1. Carrier mediated facilitated diffusion: substances bind to proteins 2. Channel mediated facilitated diffusion: substances move through water filled channels  Carrier mediated facilitated diffusion: (Fig. 3.7b)  Carriers are transmembrane integral proteins  Carriers transport specific polar molecules such as sugars and amino acids that are too large for membrane channels . Ex. Glucose molecules by glucose carriers  Binding of molecule causes carrier to change shape, moving molecules in process  Binding is limited by the number of carriers present  Carriers are saturated when all are bound to molecules and are busy transporting  Channel mediated facilitated diffusion: (Fig. 3.7c)  Channels with aqueous filled cores are formed by transmembrane proteins  Channels transport molecules such as ions or water (osmosis) down their concentration gradient . Specificity based on pore size or charge . Water channels are called aquaporins  2 types: 1. Leakage channels: always open 2. Gated channels: controlled by chemical/ electrical signals Works Cited Lindsey, Jerri K., Katja Hoehn, and Elaine Nicpon Marieb. Human Anatomy & Physiology, 9th Edition Elaine N. Marieb, Katja Hoehn. Boston, MA: Pearson, 2013. Print.


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