SOC101 Chapter 4 Notes - 9/14
SOC101 Chapter 4 Notes - 9/14 SOC 101
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hannah Mattingly on Monday September 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SOC 101 at Pima Community College taught by Joanne Taylor in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views.
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Date Created: 09/19/16
09/14 - Sociology CHAPTER 4 Socialization: Its purpose and importance v What’s the purpose of socialization? Ø Established our social identity § “Who am I?” Ø Teaches us role taking § A role is the behavior expected of a person in a particular social position § We interact differently in different situations Ø Controls our behavior § We internalize social norms and values • The process of learned cultural behaviors and expectations so deeply that we accept them without question (obeying laws, paying bills, ect…) Ø Transmits culture to the next generation v Why is it important? Ø When people are deprived of social interaction, they don’t develop the characteristics that most of us see as normal Nature and Nurture v How important is nature? Ø Developmental and health differences § Boys are at greater risk for major learning and developmental disorders § Girls are at greater risk to suffer from depression, anxiety and eating disorders Ø Unsuccessful sex reassignment v How important is nurture? Ø Socialization and culture shape human behavior Ø Research shows that environment (nurture) influences a child’s genetic makeup (nature) v Genes shape our lives and could help explain why there’s so much variation across families v Our social environment can enhance or dampen biological characteristics Ø EX: children who are genetically predisposed to obesity don’t always become overweight if parents discourage overeating and encourage physical activity Sociological Explanations of Socialization v Social learning theories Ø People learn new attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors through social interaction, especially during childhood v Direct and indirect learning Ø Reinforcement refers to direct or indirect rewards or punishment § Direct (being told something is wrong directly) § Indirect (learning something is wrong from others mistakes) 09/14 - Sociology Ø Learn through observation and imitation Ø Parents are a child’s most important role model § A role model is a person we admire and whose behavior we imitate v Symbolic Interaction Theories Ø Self § An awareness of one’s social identity Ø Looking –glass self § A self-image based on how we think others see us • Phase 1: perception ♦ We imagine how we appear to other people and how they perceive us • Phase 2: Interpretation of the perception ♦ We imagine how others judge us • Phase 3: Response ♦ We experience self-feelings based on how we think other people judge us Ø Role taking § Learning to take the perspective of others • Preparatory Stage (birth to 2 years) ♦ Mimic parents to explore self, but begins to understand cause and effect, develops a self • Play stage (2 to 6 years) ♦ Develop significant others Ø Someone whose opinions we value and who influences our thinking, especially about ourselves ♦ Acts out imagined roles ♦ Anticipatory socialization Ø Learning how to perform a role that a person will occupy • Game stage (6 years and older) ♦ Acquiring ability to understand connections between roles ♦ Generalized other Ø The norms, values, and expectations of society as a whole that affect a person’s behavior Ø When an individual acts, he or she takes into account people in general v Impression management Ø Provide information and cues to others to present ourselves in a favorable light while downplaying or concealing one’s less appealing characteristics v Reference groups Ø Groups of people who shape and individual’s self image, behavior, values, and attitudes in different contexts Primary Socialization Agents v Socialization agents 09/14 - Sociology Ø The individuals, groups, or institutions that teach us how to participate effectively in society v Purpose of socialization is to enable children to regulate their behavior and to make responsible decisions v Parenting Styles Ø Authoritarian § Demanding, controlling and punitive Ø Authoritative § Demanding, controlling, warm and supportive Ø Permissive § Not demanding, warm, indulgent, set few rules Ø Uninvolved § Neither supportive nor controlling v Multigenerational households Ø Homes in which three or more generations live together v Play, peer groups and friends Ø Peer group § People who are similar in age, social status, and interests Ø play promotes cognitive development, encourages children to think and formulates strategies Ø peer influence increases as children get older Ø peers serve as role models normally Ø teachers and schools play a major role in a child’s development v Pop culture and the media Ø Social media and television can affect a child’s development immensely Socialization throughout life v Infancy and toddlerhood Ø Good relationships with adults and caregivers has a profound effect on infants v Childhood through adolescence Ø Physical, emotional, social and cognitive growth Ø Reward and punishment v Teenage years Ø Teens establish their own identity and become more independent v Adulthood Ø Adults adopt a new series of roles (work, marriage, parenthood, ect…) Resocialization v Resocialization Ø The process of unlearning old ways of doing things and adopting new attitudes, values, norms and behavior Ø Voluntary and involuntary 09/14 - Sociology v Total institutions Ø Settings where people are isolated from the rest of society, stripped of their former identities and required to conform to new rules and behavior Socialization is a powerful force in shaping who we are.
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