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Microbiology Study Guide for Test 1

by: Savannah Carter

Microbiology Study Guide for Test 1 Bio 221

Marketplace > College of Western Idaho > Biology > Bio 221 > Microbiology Study Guide for Test 1
Savannah Carter

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This is a completed version of the study guide for the first test. Good luck! Hope this helps!
Teresa Rich
Class Notes
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Savannah Carter on Monday September 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 221 at College of Western Idaho taught by Teresa Rich in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 126 views. For similar materials see Microbiology in Biology at College of Western Idaho.


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Date Created: 09/19/16
Microbiology Exam 1 Study Guide Chapter 1: Introduction to Microbes and Their Building Blocks Topic 1.1 Microbes: Tiny but Might  List the six types of microbes o Bacteria o Archaea o Protozoa o Fungi o Helminths o Viruses Topic 1.2 Microbes and the Planet  Impact of Microbes on the Earth o Bacteria perform photosynthesis o Microbes produce CO2, nitrous oxide, and methane which control earth’s temperature o Bacteria and fungi protect plants from disease and help them get water and nutrients  Theory of Evolution o The adaptation of living organisms o The better adapted animals survive o Favorable genetic differences are passed on to the offspring  Define Theory o An idea that has a lot of data to support it, but hasn’t been completely proven  Why is the theory of evolution still called a theory? o There is a lot of evidence to support it, but it is impossible to prove Topic 1.3 Microbes & Humans  Humans Manipulate Organism for Their Own Use o Domestication  Microbes make cheese, yogurt, bread, alcohol, acetone o Biotechnology: using microbes to make products industrially  Microbes make rubbing alcohol, human insulin, and antibiotics o Genetic Engineering: use microbes to make things by manipulating the genetics  Recombinant DNA Technology: transferring DNA from one organism to another  Ex: Insert the gene for human insulin into a microbe and use the microbe as a host to produce more insulin o Bioremediation: the ability of microbes to clean up toxic pollutants  Certain forms of bacteria and yeast eat petroleum and clean oil spills  Human Disease Caused by Microbes o Emerging diseases o New diseases o Noninfectious diseases becoming infectious o Cancer – linked to viruses Topic 1.5 What are They [Microbes] Exactly?  Differentiate Between a Prokaryote and a Eukaryote o Eukaryote  Have a nucleus and organelles  Can be multicellular or unicellular o Prokaryote  Do not have a nucleus or organelles  Always unicellular  Third Type of Microorganism o Viruses  Acellular  Have genetic material wrapped in a capsid  Relative Sizes of the Different Microbes o Helminths are the largest o Prokaryotes are 10x smaller than eukaryotes o Viruses are the smallest Topic 1.6 Macromolecules: Superstructures of Life  Four Main Families of Biochemicals o Carbohydrates  Glycocaylx, peptidoglycan o Lipids  cell membrane, phospholipid bilayer o Proteins  chromosomes, flagella, cytoskeleton, peptidoglycan, enzymes, transport proteins, receptor proteins o Nucleic Acids  DNA and RNA, chromosomes, plasmids, ribosomes  Structures of Proteins o Primary – linear sequence of amino acids o Secondary – hydrogen bonding creates alpha helices and beta sheets o Tertiary – side chain interactions create a 3D structure o Quaternary – more than one amino acid chain together  Components of Nucleic Acids o Five carbon sugar (ribose) o Phosphate Group o Nitrogenous Base  Nucleotides of DNA and RNA o DNA  adenine, thymine, guanine, cytosine o RNA  adenine, uracil, guanine, cytosine  Components of ATP o Three phosphate groups  Three Characteristics All Cells Share o Cell membrane o Cytoplasm o DNA/RNA Topic 1.7 Naming, Classifying, and Identifying Microorganisms  Nomenclature: process of assigning a scientific name  Taxonomy: the science of classifying living things  Classification: sorting organisms into their specific taxonomic categories  Taxonomic Categories o Domain Dear o Kingdom King o Phylum Phillip, o Class Come o Order Over o Family For o Genus Good o Species Spaghetti!  Binomial Name = genus name + species name  Three Major Domains o Bacteria o Archaea o Eukaryota Chapter 3: Prokaryotic Structure Topic 3.1 Prokaryotic Form & Function  All Bacteria Have. . . o Cytoplasm o Ribosomes o Plasma membrane o Nucleoid containing DNA  Some Bacteria Have. . . o Appendages (flagella, fimbriae, cilia, pilus) o Inclusions o Capsule o Cell wall o Plasmids  Shapes of Prokaryotes o Cocci  round balls o Bacilli  rods  Vibrio  comma shape  Spirilium  rigid corkscrew with flagella  Spirochete  flexible corkscrew Topic 3.2 External Structures  Appendages o 1. Glycocaylx  “sugar cup”  Composed of carbohydrates  Two functions  Preventing the cell from being phagocytized  Helps the cell stick to things o 2. Flagella  Allow for motility  Embedded in the cell wall  Monotrichus: just one  Lophotricus: many out of one end  Amphitricus: many out of both ends  Peritricus: all over the cell  Endoflagella  Wrapped around the cell - when it spins, it spins the entire cell  Seen only in spirochetes o 3. Fimbriae: Used to attach to other cells and surfaces o 4. Pili: Grab other bacteria to exchange genetic material  How Flagella Work in the Presence of an Attractant o Chemotaxis  “chemical movement”  Positive: the bacterium is moving toward something it wants  Negative: the bacterium is moving away from something bad  Run: movement in one straight line direction  Tumble: random spinning and rolling, trying to change directions Topic 3.3 The Cell Envelope: The Wall & Membrane(s)  Two Main Types of Envelope Structure o Cell Wall  Composed of carbohydrates and peptidoglycan (amino acids) o Cell Membrane  Phospholipid Bilayer  Regulates what goes in and out of the cell  Why are Gram-Positive Cell Walls Stronger than Gram-Negative Cell Walls? o Gram-Positive cells have a thick peptidoglycan wall o Gram-Negative cells have a thin peptidoglycan wall and an outer membrane  Lipopolysaccharides o Endotoxin in the outer membrane of gram-negative cells o Stimulates fever and shock in humans o Very resistant to antibiotics Topic 3.4 Bacterial Internal Structure  Contents of Bacterial Cytoplasm o Chromosomes and Plasmids  Contain DNA  Plasmids contain “superhero genes”  Resistance to antibiotics and toxins  Make the cell stronger o Ribosomes  Composed of protein and RNA  Make proteins using DNA  Sizes  Large subunit = 50 S  Small subunit = 30 S  Ribosome = 70 S  A eukaryotic ribosome = 80 S o Inclusions and Granules  Stores of extra food, gas, or waste to be excreted o Cytoskeleton  Some bacteria have them  Actin filaments and microtubules that give support and structure  Sporogenesis o Function  Help bacteria survive heat, radiation, drying, and lack of food  One of the most resistant forms of life o Formation  Vegetative Stage: growing, eating, reproducing  One vegetative cell forms one endospore  Endospore Stage: resting and surviving  One endospore forms one vegetative cell  Germination o Caused by water, the presence of food, boiling o After endospore formation is complete, the vegetative cell’s DNA is degraded o The endospore is wrapped in protective layers Topic 3.5 The Arachaea  Differences Between Archaea and Bacteria o Archaea do not contain peptidoglycan o Cell membranes of archaea are a lipid monolayer (not bilayer) o Archaea have more complex RNA polymerases  Similarities Between Archaea and Eukaryotes o Metabolic pathways are similar o Protein synthesis is similar o No peptidoglycan o Complex RNA polymerases o Have nucleosomes and histones Topic 3.6 Prokaryotic Classification Systems  Four Divisions Ending in –cutes o Gracilicutes  “delicate or thin,” gram negative o Firmicutes  “firm or thick,” gram positive o Tenericutes  Do not have a cell wall o Mendosicutes  Archaea, unusual cell walls  Bacterial Species: a collection of cells that share an overall pattern of traits and 70-80% of genes Chapter 4: Eukaryotic Structure Topic 4.1 The History of Eukaryotes  Last Common Ancestor o All cells came from the last common ancestor o Characteristics common to bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes  Groups split up and developed their own unique characteristics  Endosymbiosis: one organism lives inside another one o The evolutionary development of different cell structures o Nucleus  Pinched off from the cytoplasm and surrounded DNA o Endoplasmic Reticulum  Pinched off from the cell membrane o Mitochondria  Was a prokaryotic organism that was engulfed by the eukaryotic cell  It helped the cell rather than hurt it, so it was not destroyed  Produce ATP  Have their own DNA  Most closely related to E. Coli o Chloroplasts  A photosynthetic bacterium was engulfed by the eukaryotic cell  It helped the cell rather than hurt it, so it was not destroyed  Have their own DNA  Most closely related to cyanobacteria  Types of Eukaryotes o Fungi o Protozoa o Helminths Topic 4.2 Structures of the Eukaryotic Cell  Cilia o Like short flagella o Bundle of microtubules in a 9 + 2 arrangement o Move coordinately  Flagella o Bundles of microtubules in a 9+2 arrangement o ATP is used to pull the bundles back and forth to move the cell o Prokaryotes – flagella spin 360 , like a propeller o Eukaryotes – flagella wave back and forth, like a tail  Cell Wall o Fungi Composition – chitin o Algae Composition – cellulose o Animals and protozoa never have cell walls  Cell Membrane o Both have phospholipid bilayer o Both are selectively permeable o Eukaryotic cells have sterols  Adds stability and rigidity to cell membrane  Nucleus o Contains DNA o Double membrane with pores o Contains nucleolus  Produces rRNA and subunits of ribosomes  How do the Nucleus, Endoplasmic Reticulum, and Golgi Apparatus Act Together? o Nucleolus synthesizes subunits of proteins and ribosomes o Endoplasmic reticulum assembles the subunits together o Golgi Apparatus packages the proteins for transport and use by the cell  Mitochondria o Produce almost all of the energy for the cell o Smooth outer membrane and folded inner membrane o Have their own DNA and 70S ribosomes  Ribosomes o 80S in eukaryotes, 70S in prokaryotes o Make protein o Composed of protein and rRNA o Bound or free floating  Fibers of the Cytoskeleton o Actin Filaments  smallest, cell division, contraction, extension, pinching off of lysosomes and vacuoles o Intermediate Filaments  structural reinforcement, cell to cell connections o Microtubules  largest, form the mitotic spindle, internal structure of cilia and flagella, structure for cells w/o a cell wall Topic 4.3 The Fungi  Pathogenic to Humans o Opportunistic pathogens: cause disease when they have an opportunity  People with compromised immune systems  After good bacteria are wiped out from antibiotics  Beneficial to Humans o Mushrooms o Add flavor to cheese o Make bread o Make beer and wine o Clean up natural disasters  Features of Fungal Anatomy o Chitin in cell walls o Do not photosynthesize o Absorb nutrients from the environment o Unicellular (yeast) or multicellular (mold and mushrooms)  Nutrition o Release enzymes into their surroundings to break down food into small enough molecules to be moved into the cell o Heterotrophic: cannot manufacture its own food o Saprobe: food is dead o Parasite: food is alive  Hyphae: long, branching filamentous cells o Combine to form mycelium: the vegetative part  Mycelium is visible to the naked eye  Reproduction o Spore: resistant form to drying, lack of food o Asexual Reproduction  Done by all fungi  A fungus clones itself through mitosis o Sexual Reproduction  Combines 2 different genomes to create genetic diversity  Hope that the genetically different offspring will be better suited to the environment than either parent  Two of the same species fuse a haploid cell to create a new diploid cell  Diploid cell forms spores through meiosis that form new fungi Topic 4.4 The Protozoa  Use protozoan characteristics to explain why they are informally placed into a single group.  Locomotion o Cilia o Flagella o Pseudopods: temporary extensions of cells (false feet) used to “walk” o Non-motile: wait for the environment or a vector to move them  Cysts o Resting stage o Cysts are resistant to drying, lack of food, and are hard to kill o Helps the protozoan survive  Types of Protozoa o Sarcodina  Possible Disease – Brain infection o Ciliophora  Possible Disease – Balantidiosis (intestinal) o Mastigophora  Possible Disease – Giardia o Sporozoa  Possible Disease – Malaria Topic 4.5 The Helminths  Groups o Roundworms (nematodes)  Most are nonpathogenic and essential to the environment o Flatworms  Flukes (trematodes)  Tapeworms (cystoids)  Life Cycle o Starts as fertilized eggs/embryos o Develops into larvae o Matures into an adult that produces eggs


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