Microbiology Study Guide for Test 1
Microbiology Study Guide for Test 1 Bio 221
Popular in Microbiology
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Biology
This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Savannah Carter on Monday September 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 221 at College of Western Idaho taught by Teresa Rich in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 126 views. For similar materials see Microbiology in Biology at College of Western Idaho.
Reviews for Microbiology Study Guide for Test 1
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
Date Created: 09/19/16
Microbiology Exam 1 Study Guide Chapter 1: Introduction to Microbes and Their Building Blocks Topic 1.1 Microbes: Tiny but Might List the six types of microbes o Bacteria o Archaea o Protozoa o Fungi o Helminths o Viruses Topic 1.2 Microbes and the Planet Impact of Microbes on the Earth o Bacteria perform photosynthesis o Microbes produce CO2, nitrous oxide, and methane which control earth’s temperature o Bacteria and fungi protect plants from disease and help them get water and nutrients Theory of Evolution o The adaptation of living organisms o The better adapted animals survive o Favorable genetic differences are passed on to the offspring Define Theory o An idea that has a lot of data to support it, but hasn’t been completely proven Why is the theory of evolution still called a theory? o There is a lot of evidence to support it, but it is impossible to prove Topic 1.3 Microbes & Humans Humans Manipulate Organism for Their Own Use o Domestication Microbes make cheese, yogurt, bread, alcohol, acetone o Biotechnology: using microbes to make products industrially Microbes make rubbing alcohol, human insulin, and antibiotics o Genetic Engineering: use microbes to make things by manipulating the genetics Recombinant DNA Technology: transferring DNA from one organism to another Ex: Insert the gene for human insulin into a microbe and use the microbe as a host to produce more insulin o Bioremediation: the ability of microbes to clean up toxic pollutants Certain forms of bacteria and yeast eat petroleum and clean oil spills Human Disease Caused by Microbes o Emerging diseases o New diseases o Noninfectious diseases becoming infectious o Cancer – linked to viruses Topic 1.5 What are They [Microbes] Exactly? Differentiate Between a Prokaryote and a Eukaryote o Eukaryote Have a nucleus and organelles Can be multicellular or unicellular o Prokaryote Do not have a nucleus or organelles Always unicellular Third Type of Microorganism o Viruses Acellular Have genetic material wrapped in a capsid Relative Sizes of the Different Microbes o Helminths are the largest o Prokaryotes are 10x smaller than eukaryotes o Viruses are the smallest Topic 1.6 Macromolecules: Superstructures of Life Four Main Families of Biochemicals o Carbohydrates Glycocaylx, peptidoglycan o Lipids cell membrane, phospholipid bilayer o Proteins chromosomes, flagella, cytoskeleton, peptidoglycan, enzymes, transport proteins, receptor proteins o Nucleic Acids DNA and RNA, chromosomes, plasmids, ribosomes Structures of Proteins o Primary – linear sequence of amino acids o Secondary – hydrogen bonding creates alpha helices and beta sheets o Tertiary – side chain interactions create a 3D structure o Quaternary – more than one amino acid chain together Components of Nucleic Acids o Five carbon sugar (ribose) o Phosphate Group o Nitrogenous Base Nucleotides of DNA and RNA o DNA adenine, thymine, guanine, cytosine o RNA adenine, uracil, guanine, cytosine Components of ATP o Three phosphate groups Three Characteristics All Cells Share o Cell membrane o Cytoplasm o DNA/RNA Topic 1.7 Naming, Classifying, and Identifying Microorganisms Nomenclature: process of assigning a scientific name Taxonomy: the science of classifying living things Classification: sorting organisms into their specific taxonomic categories Taxonomic Categories o Domain Dear o Kingdom King o Phylum Phillip, o Class Come o Order Over o Family For o Genus Good o Species Spaghetti! Binomial Name = genus name + species name Three Major Domains o Bacteria o Archaea o Eukaryota Chapter 3: Prokaryotic Structure Topic 3.1 Prokaryotic Form & Function All Bacteria Have. . . o Cytoplasm o Ribosomes o Plasma membrane o Nucleoid containing DNA Some Bacteria Have. . . o Appendages (flagella, fimbriae, cilia, pilus) o Inclusions o Capsule o Cell wall o Plasmids Shapes of Prokaryotes o Cocci round balls o Bacilli rods Vibrio comma shape Spirilium rigid corkscrew with flagella Spirochete flexible corkscrew Topic 3.2 External Structures Appendages o 1. Glycocaylx “sugar cup” Composed of carbohydrates Two functions Preventing the cell from being phagocytized Helps the cell stick to things o 2. Flagella Allow for motility Embedded in the cell wall Monotrichus: just one Lophotricus: many out of one end Amphitricus: many out of both ends Peritricus: all over the cell Endoflagella Wrapped around the cell - when it spins, it spins the entire cell Seen only in spirochetes o 3. Fimbriae: Used to attach to other cells and surfaces o 4. Pili: Grab other bacteria to exchange genetic material How Flagella Work in the Presence of an Attractant o Chemotaxis “chemical movement” Positive: the bacterium is moving toward something it wants Negative: the bacterium is moving away from something bad Run: movement in one straight line direction Tumble: random spinning and rolling, trying to change directions Topic 3.3 The Cell Envelope: The Wall & Membrane(s) Two Main Types of Envelope Structure o Cell Wall Composed of carbohydrates and peptidoglycan (amino acids) o Cell Membrane Phospholipid Bilayer Regulates what goes in and out of the cell Why are Gram-Positive Cell Walls Stronger than Gram-Negative Cell Walls? o Gram-Positive cells have a thick peptidoglycan wall o Gram-Negative cells have a thin peptidoglycan wall and an outer membrane Lipopolysaccharides o Endotoxin in the outer membrane of gram-negative cells o Stimulates fever and shock in humans o Very resistant to antibiotics Topic 3.4 Bacterial Internal Structure Contents of Bacterial Cytoplasm o Chromosomes and Plasmids Contain DNA Plasmids contain “superhero genes” Resistance to antibiotics and toxins Make the cell stronger o Ribosomes Composed of protein and RNA Make proteins using DNA Sizes Large subunit = 50 S Small subunit = 30 S Ribosome = 70 S A eukaryotic ribosome = 80 S o Inclusions and Granules Stores of extra food, gas, or waste to be excreted o Cytoskeleton Some bacteria have them Actin filaments and microtubules that give support and structure Sporogenesis o Function Help bacteria survive heat, radiation, drying, and lack of food One of the most resistant forms of life o Formation Vegetative Stage: growing, eating, reproducing One vegetative cell forms one endospore Endospore Stage: resting and surviving One endospore forms one vegetative cell Germination o Caused by water, the presence of food, boiling o After endospore formation is complete, the vegetative cell’s DNA is degraded o The endospore is wrapped in protective layers Topic 3.5 The Arachaea Differences Between Archaea and Bacteria o Archaea do not contain peptidoglycan o Cell membranes of archaea are a lipid monolayer (not bilayer) o Archaea have more complex RNA polymerases Similarities Between Archaea and Eukaryotes o Metabolic pathways are similar o Protein synthesis is similar o No peptidoglycan o Complex RNA polymerases o Have nucleosomes and histones Topic 3.6 Prokaryotic Classification Systems Four Divisions Ending in –cutes o Gracilicutes “delicate or thin,” gram negative o Firmicutes “firm or thick,” gram positive o Tenericutes Do not have a cell wall o Mendosicutes Archaea, unusual cell walls Bacterial Species: a collection of cells that share an overall pattern of traits and 70-80% of genes Chapter 4: Eukaryotic Structure Topic 4.1 The History of Eukaryotes Last Common Ancestor o All cells came from the last common ancestor o Characteristics common to bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes Groups split up and developed their own unique characteristics Endosymbiosis: one organism lives inside another one o The evolutionary development of different cell structures o Nucleus Pinched off from the cytoplasm and surrounded DNA o Endoplasmic Reticulum Pinched off from the cell membrane o Mitochondria Was a prokaryotic organism that was engulfed by the eukaryotic cell It helped the cell rather than hurt it, so it was not destroyed Produce ATP Have their own DNA Most closely related to E. Coli o Chloroplasts A photosynthetic bacterium was engulfed by the eukaryotic cell It helped the cell rather than hurt it, so it was not destroyed Have their own DNA Most closely related to cyanobacteria Types of Eukaryotes o Fungi o Protozoa o Helminths Topic 4.2 Structures of the Eukaryotic Cell Cilia o Like short flagella o Bundle of microtubules in a 9 + 2 arrangement o Move coordinately Flagella o Bundles of microtubules in a 9+2 arrangement o ATP is used to pull the bundles back and forth to move the cell o Prokaryotes – flagella spin 360 , like a propeller o Eukaryotes – flagella wave back and forth, like a tail Cell Wall o Fungi Composition – chitin o Algae Composition – cellulose o Animals and protozoa never have cell walls Cell Membrane o Both have phospholipid bilayer o Both are selectively permeable o Eukaryotic cells have sterols Adds stability and rigidity to cell membrane Nucleus o Contains DNA o Double membrane with pores o Contains nucleolus Produces rRNA and subunits of ribosomes How do the Nucleus, Endoplasmic Reticulum, and Golgi Apparatus Act Together? o Nucleolus synthesizes subunits of proteins and ribosomes o Endoplasmic reticulum assembles the subunits together o Golgi Apparatus packages the proteins for transport and use by the cell Mitochondria o Produce almost all of the energy for the cell o Smooth outer membrane and folded inner membrane o Have their own DNA and 70S ribosomes Ribosomes o 80S in eukaryotes, 70S in prokaryotes o Make protein o Composed of protein and rRNA o Bound or free floating Fibers of the Cytoskeleton o Actin Filaments smallest, cell division, contraction, extension, pinching off of lysosomes and vacuoles o Intermediate Filaments structural reinforcement, cell to cell connections o Microtubules largest, form the mitotic spindle, internal structure of cilia and flagella, structure for cells w/o a cell wall Topic 4.3 The Fungi Pathogenic to Humans o Opportunistic pathogens: cause disease when they have an opportunity People with compromised immune systems After good bacteria are wiped out from antibiotics Beneficial to Humans o Mushrooms o Add flavor to cheese o Make bread o Make beer and wine o Clean up natural disasters Features of Fungal Anatomy o Chitin in cell walls o Do not photosynthesize o Absorb nutrients from the environment o Unicellular (yeast) or multicellular (mold and mushrooms) Nutrition o Release enzymes into their surroundings to break down food into small enough molecules to be moved into the cell o Heterotrophic: cannot manufacture its own food o Saprobe: food is dead o Parasite: food is alive Hyphae: long, branching filamentous cells o Combine to form mycelium: the vegetative part Mycelium is visible to the naked eye Reproduction o Spore: resistant form to drying, lack of food o Asexual Reproduction Done by all fungi A fungus clones itself through mitosis o Sexual Reproduction Combines 2 different genomes to create genetic diversity Hope that the genetically different offspring will be better suited to the environment than either parent Two of the same species fuse a haploid cell to create a new diploid cell Diploid cell forms spores through meiosis that form new fungi Topic 4.4 The Protozoa Use protozoan characteristics to explain why they are informally placed into a single group. Locomotion o Cilia o Flagella o Pseudopods: temporary extensions of cells (false feet) used to “walk” o Non-motile: wait for the environment or a vector to move them Cysts o Resting stage o Cysts are resistant to drying, lack of food, and are hard to kill o Helps the protozoan survive Types of Protozoa o Sarcodina Possible Disease – Brain infection o Ciliophora Possible Disease – Balantidiosis (intestinal) o Mastigophora Possible Disease – Giardia o Sporozoa Possible Disease – Malaria Topic 4.5 The Helminths Groups o Roundworms (nematodes) Most are nonpathogenic and essential to the environment o Flatworms Flukes (trematodes) Tapeworms (cystoids) Life Cycle o Starts as fertilized eggs/embryos o Develops into larvae o Matures into an adult that produces eggs