CH.1 Lecture Notes (health psych)
CH.1 Lecture Notes (health psych) Psy 383
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mina Sezan on Monday September 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psy 383 at University of Arizona taught by Dr. David Sbarra in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Health Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Arizona.
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Date Created: 09/19/16
Ch. 1: What Is Health Psychology Health Psychology Studies psychological influences on people o How they stay healthy o Why the become ill o How they respond when they get ill Health: complete state of physical, mental, and social well-being o Wellness: optimum state of health Focus of Health Psychologists Health promotion and maintenance Prevention and treatment of illness Etiology and correlates of health, illness, and dysfunction o Etiology: origins or causes of illness Improvement of health care systems and the formulation of health policy The Mind-Body Relationship: A brief history Disease during prehistory considered to arise when evil spirits entered the body Humoral theory of illness diseases resulted when the humors or circulating fluids of the body were out of balance o Personality types associated with the humors Blood= passionate temperament Black bile= sadness Yellow bile= angry disposition Phlegm= laid back approach to life Diseases in middle ages god’s punishment Renaissance to present day technical bases of medicine are understood o Dependent on laboratory findings and looked to bodily factors o Diagnosis organic and cellular pathology What is Health? Traditional view of health is the biomedical model o A disease results from exposure to a pathogen o Views health as the absence of disease The Biomedical Model: Why is it ill-suited to understanding illness? Reduces illness to low-level processes such as disordered cells and chemical imbalances Fails to recognize social and psychological processes as powerful influences over bodily estates- assumes a mind body dualism Emphasizes illness over health rather than focusing on behaviors that promote health Model cannot address many puzzles that face practitioners: why, for example, if six people are exposed to a flu virus, do only three develop the flu Psychosomatic Medicine Specific unconscious conflicts produce physical disturbance symbolizing repressed psychological conflicts Specific illnesses are produced by people’s internal conflicts o Linked patterns of personality to specific illnesses o Criticism, conflict, or personality type is not sufficient to produce illness Modern psychosomatic medicine investigates how emotion and health are interconnected Biopsychosocial Model Health and illness are consequences of the interplay of biological, psychological, and social factors Advantages: o Maintains the macro level and micro level processes continually interact to influence health and illness Clinical Implications of the Biopsychosocial Model Process of diagnosis can benefit from understanding the interacting role of biological, psychological, and social factors Significance of the relationship between patient and practitioner is made clear which improves: o Patient’s use of services o Efficacy of treatment o Rapidity with which illness is resolved A Virus Doesn’t Always Lead to a Cold Sheldon Cohen’s research on colds o Participants receive a cold virus and the quarantines Not all participants develop a cold Those who do develop a cold are more likely to have had a stressful experience, experience fewer positive emotions, be less sociable, have less diverse social networks than who do not develop a cold Theory Set of analytic statements that explain a set of phenomena o Advantages Provide guidelines for how to do research and interventions Generate specific predictions that can be tested and modified Help tie together loose ends Experiment Two or more different conditions are created to which people are assigned randomly and their reactions are measured Randomized clinical trials: Conducted to evaluate treatments or interventions and their effectiveness over time o Evidence-based medicine: medical interventions go through rigorous testing and evaluation of their benefits before they become the standard of care Correlational Studies Correlational research: Measures whether a change in one variable corresponds with changed in another variable Disadvantage- difficult to determine the direction of causality unambiguously Advantage over experiments- more adaptable Prospective Research Looks forward in time to see how: o Group of people change o Relationship between two variables changes over time Conducted to understand the risk factors that relate to health conditions Longitudinal research: Same people are observed at multiple points in time Retrospective Designs Looks backward in time in an attempt to reconstruct the conditions that led to a current situation Were critical in identifying the risk factors that led to the development of AIDS Role of Epidemiology in Health Psychology Epidemiology: Study of the frequency, distribution, and causes of infectious and noninfectious disease in a population o Morbidity: number of cases of a disease that exist at some given point in time o Mortality: numbers of deaths due to particular causes Methodological Tools Tools of neuroscience o Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)- permits glimpses into the brain o Has helped to improve the knowledge of the autonomic, neuroendocrine, and immune systems Mobile and wireless technologies o Ecological momentary interventions o Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring devices Meta-analysis o Combine results from different studies to identify how strong the evidence is for particular research findings Martikained & Volkonen, 1996 The subjects were 1,580,000 married Finnish persons aged 35 through 84 years who were followed up from 1986 through 1991 Excess mortality among the bereaved was moderate for chronic ischemic heart disease and lung cancer (20% to 35%) Excess mortality was greater at short (<6 months) rather than long durations of bereavement and among younger rather than older bereaved persons; it was also greater among men than women. Inflammation in bereavement Bereaved vs. married/partnered older adults were compared Investigated the impact of bereavement status on circulating marker of inflammation The study sample included 64 older adults, of which 36 were widow(er)s. Aspirin in bereavement The study sample included 10 bereaved participants and 12 non bereaved control participants The study consisted of two laboratory visits, and between 12 participants took aspirin, and 10 participants took a placebo
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