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His 312

by: Jessica Landry

His 312 His 312

Jessica Landry


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Class Notes
Renaissance and Reformation
Dr. Marvin
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jessica Landry on Monday September 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to His 312 at Berry College taught by Dr. Marvin in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Renaissance and Reformation in History at Berry College.


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Date Created: 09/19/16
Intro to Ren/Ref Period (1300­1600) I. Introduction  ­big difference between Ren/Ref and Middle Ages/Ancient world is more primary  sources from Ren/Ref period  ­increased use of the vernacular ­scholars tend to study on region instead of whole II. Chronological parametths for beginning and ending of course  A. Beginnings: 13  Century (commercial, revolution, or culture) 1. Some suggest the Ren started in 13 century 2. Commercial revolution reason for this a. Markets opened b. Commerce boomed after crusades c. City­states in Italy at the forefront of commercial revolution 3. Population expanding in W. Europe in 13  century  a. Increased demand for goods esp luxury 4. Ren built on a foundation of commercial success  5. Some suggest because of culture a. Increase use of vernacular b. New poetry and lit c. First prose histories in vernacular in 13   th d. Aristotle rediscovered in 13   th th B. Beginnings in 14  century (culture, demographic) a. Because new culture and increased use of writing in vernacular in 14   th century­ esp in Italy i. Not all religious b. Scholasticism collapsed in 14  century i. Things changed because prevailing world view collapsed c. Leadership split within church i. Loss of faith in church brought change d. Black plague­ large loss in population (1/3 of population) i. Such demographic loss caused change C. Ren Endings: 1500 a. Italy was under dominance of French, Spanish, Hapsburgs, and despots i. Not free place anymore  Ren over 1. Does not account for Michaelangelo, Cellini, and  Machiavelli D. Ending 1520 a. Ref under way b. Religious unity shattered c. Cultural differences aggravated E. Ending 1525 a. Ren and Ref ended because of Peasent War i. So destructive because many disillusioned with Luther b. Ref became less about ideas and more about power F. Ref ending in 1648 a. Most common end date b. 30 yrs war ended­ last religious war in Europe  c. No possibility of religious unity ­Beginnings and ending all about how you want to argue it II. Similarities and Differences between Medieval and Ren/Ref A. Just evolution along Medieval lines B. 1600­ Latin was still universal educated language C. Until 1550 all of W. Europ under one religious leader D. Writings still of religious nature­ 80% E. Both very interested in antiquity  F. No political change a. Still monarchs and nobles ruling  i. Except Burgundy, N. Italy, and Netherlands G. Male dominance still prominent H. Most people still farmers using same tools, techniques, living style, etc. I. 1600­ no real difference in average person except may have been worse off a. Religious ways, gov, old farming techniques, etc ­pretty much just the same  III. Ren of Jacob Burkhardt (1818­1897) ­swiss ­our idea of Ren come from him­ huge impact on field  ­son of a protestant minister ­studied theology until lost his faith and became agnostic ­didn’t like fixation with politics in Germany ­went to Italy and fell in love with it ­wrote The Civilization of Renaissance in Italy in 1860 ­synthesis ­not research, archived, original book ­wanted to write about thought from Petrarch­ 1800’s ­came up with 5 things about period­ argued distinction in period ­saw beginning of individuals ­called Italian intellectuals “modern men”  ­saw rise of new secular culture ­Italy exceptional­ only place things were happening ­Italy birthplace of modernity  ­shift from rural  urban ­Italians discord new ways of looking at ancient world ­idea that was Ren and birth of modern world from Burkhardt ­made Ren a viable period sandwiched between Medieval and modern  ­said little about social change, economies, or religion ­Burkhardt was man of his time­ 19  century romantic ­saw Ren as height of wonderful culture ­loved it because hated own times ­book published right before Italy united IV. End of the Reformation th ­the long 16  century ­didn’t really begin with Luther or with early dissident with Medieval church  ­French historians say 1484­1614 because don’t acknowledge Ref  ­politically Ren for then ­what is the Ref? ­theological revolution ­heresy that succeeded to orthodox church  V. “Great” men and women of history or popular culture A. great man theories of history  ­people in this era typify great men theory  ­great man­ people who bring ideas of individuality and modernity ­are these people cause/agent? Are they just the figurehead? B. The Great Unwashed­ Tolstoy ­at some point, historians began to believe individuals don’t matter ­Tolstoy­ War and Peace ­why great people didn’t cause events ­said it was some sort of force or will in populous ­Fernand Braundel (d. 1985) ­how Phillip II influenced the world ­The Mediterranean and the Mediterranean World in Age of Phillip II (1949) ­in histories of Ren/Ref period, ordinary people seem important than greats Perambulating the Political Map of W. Europe +/­ 1300 ­1300 W. Europe= paradox ­very cosmopolitan and very parochial ­universal religion ­universal cultural and political language­ Latin ­Pople acknowledged spiritual head ­all Europe trace roots back to Roman empire­ politically and culturally ­nationalities didn’t exist I. Geographical Expression I: Italy before and after 1300 A. Communes, Popolo, Republics, and Signories, in N.Italy contado; consulate; popolo grasso,  popolino, podesta, patrician ­1300­ N.Italy consisted of dozens of city states ­each controlled agricultural belt around it­ Contado ­each city state


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