Mass Media: Chapter 6 (Music)
Mass Media: Chapter 6 (Music) MASS110
Minnesota State University, Mankato
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Heidi Schoettle on Monday September 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to MASS110 at Minnesota State University - Mankato taught by Shane Frederik in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 114 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Mass Media in Mass Media Communication at Minnesota State University - Mankato.
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Date Created: 09/19/16
Intro to Mass Media Shane Frederick, Fall 2016 Table of Contents Red: important terms Green: other important information Purple: names of important people Chapter 6 (Music) The internet is changing the face of the music industry o Aspiring artists no longer need to rely on expensive publicists, recording studios, or contacts within the industry o Artists now have more control o Artists can also develop a more intimate relationship with their fans Twitter Evolution of Pop Music o Pop music: any genre of music that appeals to a wide audience or subculture o Thomas Edison invented the phonograph o Emile Berliner invented the gramophone o Opera singers were the stars of the 19 century o Copyright laws were strengthened in the 19 century o Numerous publishers began to emerge in NY in an area that came to be known is the Tin Pan Alley o Popular artists started conforming to the tastes of their intended audience o Pop music included Vaudeville and Ragtime o Tin Pan Alley started hiring songwriters to compose music based on public demand and mainstream tastes The Roaring 20’s o Advent of electrical recording o Rapid growth of radio 1920s to 1950s were considered the golden age of radio o Copyright Act of 1911 The 30’s: The Rise of Jazz and Blues o Jazz originated in New Orleans and was primarily instrumental; encompassed many styles including: African Rhythms Gospel Blues o King Oliver and Louis Armstrong o Some bands played in Speakeasies which gave them the reputation of being immoral o Big Band Style Contained elements of ragtime, black spirituals, blues, and European Music Duke Ellington, Coleman Hawkins, and Glenn Miller Format became more structured Swing o Blues: 12 bar musical form with call and response format between the singer and their guitar Dealt with the themes of personal adversity, overcoming hard luck, and other emotional turmoil Blues didn’t spread as significantly to the North; became more regional in certain areas The invention of the Electrical Guitar intensified the sound and volume, and laid the foundation for Rock and Roll 1940’s: Technology Progresses o Reel-to-Reel tape recorder invented o Vinyl records could be played on the gramophone Went from 78 rpm, to 33 rpm o Frank Sinatra and Ella Fitzgerald rose in popularity among teen listeners 1950’s: Rock and Roll o TV invented which threatened the radio As a result the radio focused more on music Rise of shows such as the Top 40 Payola: illegal practice of receiving payment from a record company for broadcasting a certain son on the radio Scandal in Cleveland Ohio o R&B Appealed to young listeners Classified as “race music” but there was a large crossover Little Richard and Chuck Berry Elvis Presley Introduced the culture of Black music to white culture Blended rock and country 1960’s: Rock and Roll branches off from R&B o The British Invasion The Beatles Elements of Skiffle, Doo-Wop, and Soul Initiated the Merseybeat genre Appeared on the Ed Sullivan show The Kinks, Zombies, Animals, Herman’s Hermits, and the Rolling Stones Transformed Rock and Roll into the all-encompassing genre of Rock o Surf Music Beach Boys o Soul Aretha Franklin o Girl-Group craze Martha and the Vandellas Diana Ross and the Supremes o Folk Music Supporters of the Civil Rights Movement, Feminists, Environmentalists, and Vietnam War Protesters favored this Unpolished, amateur quality that inspired participation and social awareness Peter, Paul, and Mary Bob Dylan Folk Rock Woodstock 1970’s: Glam rock to Punk Rock o Glam Rock Extravagant, self-indulgent style Flamboyant costumes and makeup Between Hard Rock and Pop Primarily a British phenomenon Elton John o Disco Flamboyant with an electric sound KC and the Sunshine Band, the Bee Gees, Donne Summer Saturday Night Fever o Punk Minimalist, angry form of Rock Simple cord structures, catchy tunes, and politically motivated lyrics Exploded in the United Kingdom 1980’s: Hip Hop Generation o Black youths’ version of Punk Rock o Includes break dancing, graffiti art, rapping, sampling, and scratching records o Chose a casual image to represent themselves o Used everyday language o Bronx, Harlem o Second wave of hip hop mixed with hard guitar rock Beastie Boys o Gangster Rap highlighted violence and gang warfare 1990’s: New Developments in Hip Hop, Rock, and Pop o Alternative Rock/Grunge Hardcore punk and heavy metal Nirvana; appealed to Generation X Green Day, Pearl Jam, 9 inch nails Today this has fragmented into more specific subgenres o Mainstream tastes leaned towards pop music Aggressively marketed to teen audiences Backstreet Boys, Spice Girls Madonna, Michael Jackson, Prince 2000’s: Pop remains strong, Hip Hop overtakes Rock o Gwen Stefani, Mariah Carey, Beyoncé, Katy Perry, Lady Gaga, Taylor Swift... o Rock’s presence waned, with the exceptions of Nickelback Linking Park Green Day o Hip Hop maintained popularity Kanye West Jay-Z o Some gangster rappers softened their images Snoop Dog and Dr. Dre o Some gangster rappers remained violent: 50 cent and Eminem Reciprocal Nature of Music and Culture o Cultural influences on music: Migration, youth culture, racial integration o Musical influences on culture: Racism in the music industry, the content of genres that assesses ideas of morality, and physical appearances of performers o Mass migration brought Blues to the North Chicago Blues o In the 1950’s, youths started to have the ability to influence record sales o Move toward integration further reflected by Motown genre o Large record companies fueled racism Hijacked hits of black performers; released censored versions by white artists o Rock and Roll was denounced for negative impact on morality o Gender bending performers helped normalize androgyny in American Culture Current Popular Trends o Global music business constitutes powerful oligopoly: A few firms dominate most of the industry’s production and distribution Major record labels make up over 85% of the music industry o Big 4 record labels today EMI Sony Universal Warner o Indie record labels: smaller labels that operate without financial assistance from the Big 4 Produce less commercially viable music Advantages: Smaller and more flexible Can respond more quickly to trends Ability to tap into niche markets Music can stay closer to the artist’s original vision o Major labels often allow high profile stars to set up their own indie labels Influence of New Technology o The emergence of free music sharing sites resulted in less CD sales o Music industries brought lawsuits against illegal downloaders o Apple’s iTunes is the dominant digital music retailer today o The boom in digital music affected the music industry in a lot of ways: It changed how profits are distributed among recording artists and labels Resulted in a massive decline of CD sales Prompted industry executives to seek profits elsewhere o Smaller indie labels took advantage of social networking sites to promote their music o Nimbit and ReverbNation enable artists to promote and distribute artist’s music directly to fans
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