New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

PSYC 1000 Notes - Chapter 1

by: William Maloney

PSYC 1000 Notes - Chapter 1 PSYC 1000

Marketplace > Tulane University > Psychology (PSYC) > PSYC 1000 > PSYC 1000 Notes Chapter 1
William Maloney
View Full Document for 0 Karma

View Full Document


Unlock These Notes for FREE

Enter your email below and we will instantly email you these Notes for Introductory Psychology

(Limited time offer)

Unlock Notes

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Unlock FREE Class Notes

Enter your email below to receive Introductory Psychology notes

Everyone needs better class notes. Enter your email and we will send you notes for this class for free.

Unlock FREE notes

About this Document

These notes cover the broad topic of Thinking Critically with Psychological Science
Introductory Psychology
Melinda Fabian
Class Notes
psych, Psychology, Science, social, Socialscience




Popular in Introductory Psychology

Popular in Psychology (PSYC)

This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by William Maloney on Monday September 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 1000 at Tulane University taught by Melinda Fabian in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Tulane University.

Similar to PSYC 1000 at Tulane

Popular in Psychology (PSYC)


Reviews for PSYC 1000 Notes - Chapter 1


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/19/16
Thinking Critically with Psychological Science  Overview  ­ How do we gather psychological information in a scientific way?  ­ Think critically with psychological science  ­ Critical thinking​ is carefully forming/evaluating knowledge rather than simply  using intuition   ­ In addition to the ​scientific method, ​  critical thinking gives us effective ways of  finding out how people work ­ what makes people do, think, and feel certain  things.  ­ The human mind is good at meeting basic needs and relationships ­ the  bigger picture, but it fails at the details ­ we make critical thinking errors.  ­ When our natural thinking style fails  ­ Hindsight bias  ­ After learning the result of some psychological research, you believe you  could have predicted that very outcome.  ­ Overconfidence error  ­ We are too certain in our judgment  ­ We overestimate our performance, rate of work, skills, and self  control  ­ We overestimate the accuracy of our knowledge ­ people are more  certain than they are accurate.  ­ Problematic in eyewitness testimony  ­ Can be a problem on tests ­ if you feel confident in your  knowledge, try to explain it to someone else  ­ Perceiving order in random events  ­ We have the wrong idea about what randomness looks like  ­ We are always trying to make sense of something  ­ How to go about being scientific  ­ Be systematic  ­ Be objective  ­ Be a critical thinker   ­ Examine assumptions  ­ Look for hidden bias  ­ Put aside your own assumptions and biases  ­ How was the information collected?  ­ Other possible explanations?  ­ The Scientific method  ­ Set up situations to test our idea  ­ Make careful, organized observations  ­ Analyze if the data fits out ideas  ­ Make conclusions ­ see if data supports our original idea  ­ Steps/the basics  ­ A ​theory ​is a principle that explains a phenomenon and predicts future  behavior  ­ A ​hypothesis ​is a ​testable prediction  ​ consistent with our theory  ­ Operational Definitions  ­ How research variables are defined  ­ Ex. For measuring ADHD decisions, we measure impulsivity by  number of times a student calls out without raising his or her hand.  ­ Replications  ­ Uses same operational definitions and procedures  ­ Validates results when tested on other people  ­ Research goals and types  ­ Descriptive research  ​ is a systematic, objective observation of people  ­ Goal is to provide an accurate picture of people’s behaviors,  thoughts, and attributes  ­ Just descriptions; doesn’t give a lot of depth  ­ Case study i​ s examining one individual in great depth  ­ The danger is that it can be unrepresentative   ­ Naturalistic Observation  ­ Just watching and not trying to change anything­ observing  “natural” behavior.  ­ Survey  ­ Gathering information through self report  ­ Many cases, less depth  ­ Cheap  ­ Random Sampling  ­ A technique for making sure every member of a population  has an equal chance of being chosen.   ­ Correlational Research  ­ Correlation: ​  When two traits/attributes are related  ­ Scientific definition: A measure of how closely two factors  vary together  ­ Finding correlations: scatterplots  ­ Positive correlation ­ Variables increase/decrease together  ­ Negative correlation ­ Variables vary in opposite direction  ­ Correlation Coefficient (r)    ­ Indicates direction and strength of relationship  ­ Range is from ­1 to +1  ­ 0 is no relationship  ­ If we find a correlation, what conclusion can we draw?  ­ Not much: there may be a hidden variable  ­ Can’t determine causality  ­ Experimentation  ­ Manipulating  ​ one factor in a situation to determine its effect while  other factors are kept under c ​ ontrol  ­ Only way to determine cause/effect  ­ One of the hardest, most invasive types of research  ­ Experimental and control groups  ­ Random assignment o ​ f participants to control/experimental  groups   ­ Placebo Effect: ​  Experimental effects caused by expecations  ­ Placebo is the fake treatment in place of the experimental  treatment  ­ Ideally, the control group is blind to whether they’re getting  the fake treatment or not  ­ Many studies are d ​ ouble­blind: N ​ either participants nor  staff know who’s in what group  ­ Variables  ­ Independent Variable  ​ (IV)  ­ Dependent Variable ( ​ DV)  ­ Confounding variables m ​ ay have an effect on dependent  variables  ­ From data to insight: statistics  ­ Once we’ve gathered data, we use statistics to:  ­ Present an accurate picture of data  ­ Help us reach valid conclusions   ­ Tools for describing data  ­ Most data representations can be manipulated ­ even if the data is  correct, it can be represented in a biased way   ­ Measures of central tendency  ­ Mode  ­ Mean  ­ Median  ­ Skewed ​distributions are those in which a few data points greatly  raise the mean  ­ Range: ​  Difference between highest and lowest scores  ­ Standard Deviation: ​  Average distance of scores from mean  ­ Normal Curve: A symmetrical, bell shaped curve that describes the  distribution of many types of data (normal distribution). Most scores fall  near the mean.  ­ Drawing conclusions from data: are the results useful?  ­ After finding a pattern in the data that shows a d ​ ifference ​ etween one  group and another, we can ask more questions.  ­ Is the difference r​ eliabl​  Can it predict future behavior?  ­ Achieved via:  ­ Unbiased sampling  ­ Consistency  ­ Many data points  ­ Is the difference ​significant? ​  Could it have been the result of  variation?  ­ When is this true?  ­ When your data is reliable  ­ When the difference between the groups is large 


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

0 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Kyle Maynard Purdue

"When you're taking detailed notes and trying to help everyone else out in the class, it really helps you learn and understand the I made $280 on my first study guide!"

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.