geography lessons 5-6
geography lessons 5-6 Geography 101
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lauren Price on Monday September 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Geography 101 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Erik Nicholas Johanson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see World Geography in Geography at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.
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Date Created: 09/19/16
Geography Lecture 5: Mexico and Middle America 9/6/16 Middle America Physical geography Coastal lowlands and interior highlands Fault lines Panama Canal, tropical rain forests, vertical climate zones, coral reefs, lake Nicaragua, volcanic axis, archipelago, Isthmus of Panama, central highlands Mesoamerican antiquity Colonial legacy Early StateLevel Civilization in Mesoamerica StateLevel Civilizations (Olmec, Maya, and Aztec) 1. Urbanized society 2. Economic intensification and specialization 3. Monumental architecture and public buildings 4. Record keeping 5. State religion Olmec Core area located in southern Gulf Coast of Mexico Olmec culture considered earliest example of cultural complexity in Mesoamerica “Mother culture” for all latter civilizations Mayan Mayan civilizations found in three major environments Highland Guatemala and adjacent countries Lowland rainforests Dry scrub forests of northern Yucatan Mayan dependent on maize agriculture Limited land due to soils, wetness, pop, so they devised techniques to maximize agricultural potential Milpas: cleared plots of land; type of swidden agriculture (slash and burn) Chinampas: raisedfield technique, “floating gardens” allowing planting in low, wet areas Several major centers emerged in Lowland Maya area including Tikal Mayan kings ruled vast territories and commanded remarkable wealth and power Warfare was partly a ritual phenomenon between elites Writing, records, calendars, astronomy Mayan collapse: great ceremonial centers were abandoned, the Long Count calendar discontinued, and the structure of religious life and the state decayed Theories: Rapid population increase put pressure on the agricultural and economic system Exhaustion of soils, decreased agricultural productivity, warfare, and major drought Aztec Aztecs were one of several semicivilized Chichimeca groups who settled in the Valley of Mexico Tenochtitlan: capital, flourished as a trading center (now beneath Mexico City), population over 200,000 Planned streets and at least 40 pyramids City became more formidable through diplomacy, military alliances, and strategic royal marriages Warfare: In the early 15th century, the Aztecs abruptly embarked on a longterm military and economic conquest Rulers used terror and human sacrifice as a means of controlling conquered territory Tribute from conquered basis of wealth Tenochtitlan was captured by Spain, Hernando Cortéz, and named Mexico City to erase evidence of Aztec order Spaniards brought new diseases and wiped out Aztecs Cortés rebuilt the city with more European influence Mexico City became the new capital of New Spain Colonialism “Colonialism is a relationship between an indigenous majority and minority of foreign invaders. The fundamental decisions affecting the lives of the colonized people are made and implemented by the colonial rulers in pursuit of interest that are often defined in a distant metropolis. Rejecting cultural compromises with the colonized population, the colonizers are convinced of their own superiority and their ordained mandate to rule.” Social order in the Spanish New World Sistema de Castas: a strict caste system ascribing social position based on race and position of their parents Peninsulares: Spaniards and other whites born in Europe Creoles: Spaniards and other whites born in the Americas Indios: Amerindians Mestizos: Mixed Amerindian and white Mulattos: Mixed African and white Zambos: Mixed Amerindian and African mix Negros: Africans Mexican Independence Hernan Cortes, under the Spanish crown took Mexico in 1519 The Mexican War of independence began in 1810 and lasted over 11 years, Mexico remained ruled by the economically elite, which typically meant nonindiginous, who made up most of the population Despite territory battles and the Mexican American War in the middle and late 1800s, Mexico remains loyal to the U.S. by not intervening in WW1 despite pressure from Germany to do so Mexican political affairs center around trade with the US and the balance between a majority of Mexican citizens who are economically disadvantaged and rising Mexico’s presence in the world economy, and specifically, the Latin American economy. Guatemala Guatemala City Tikal: Mesoamerican city, Mayan Belize Belize Barrier Reef and the Blue Hole Geography Lecture 7: Central America and the Caribbean Primate City Farther above than the next largest city Paris is one, 9.6 million compared to the next largest city Marseilles with 1.3 million India’s most populous city is Mumbai with 16 million and the next largest is Kolkata with more than 13 million Mexico city is a primate city US and Canada do not have primate cities Positive effects Advantages of agglomeration of economic activity Large market for goods and services Ability to offer highend goods and services including education because of larger threshold population Advantages of enhanced flow of information and ideas in large population Advantages of centralized transportation and communication network Negative effects Stress on natural resources Uneven development Brain drain, all the top people want to move to the bigger city Tourism in Mexico It is focused in Cabos or in Cancun, though also in Mexico City Tourism does not provide for the locals, myth that tourism is automatically associated with economic growth In Cabos around 30% of residents live in poverty, 5.6% in extreme poverty, similar problem in Cancun Mexican Independence Cinco de Mayo is not Mexican independence Cinco de Mayo commemorates the Mexican Army being victorious over French forces at the Battle of Puebla on May 5, 1862 Cinco de Mayo has a much larger significance in the US as a celebration of Mexican American culture Mexican Independence is somewhere in September Machismo and Latin America Gender Politics Machismo: pride in being macho or manly with typical feminine characteristics seen as undesirable Advocates for providing and defending women (without assigning women an active role in society) Negative response in recent popular culture towards machismo culture Machismo attitudes often highlight the taking of multiple sexual partners by a single male Contributed to increasing HIV/AIDS rates in Latin America Honduras Capital: Tegucigalpa Nicaragua Population of less than 6 million Large, freshwater lake in the middle of the country, lots of freshwater sharks Capital: Managua One of the poorer countries in the region Grenada, huge tourist destination, an Atlantic seaport Banana Wars US military interventions in Central America and Caribbean Reasons for these conflicts were varied but largely economic in nature These conflicts were called “banana wars” and related strongly to US commercial interests (e.g. bananas, tobacco, sugar) Costa Rica Biodiversity 4.5 million people Capital: San Jose Coffee is a key crop They have no military “Blue zone” have a bigger average for age, people here tend to live longer San Vito: Italian Caribbean Coast More picturesque beaches Pacific Coast More dry and mountainous Jurassic Park was filmed here Interior Uplands and Volcanoes Tropical rain forests Ecotourism in Costa Rica Only country that bans all recreational hunting Lots of national parks Ideally: Provide financing for parks and conservation efforts Serve as economic justification for the preservation of nature parks and wildlife Reduce exploitation of conservation areas by supplying local peoples with viable economic alternatives Promote environmentalism and conservation Encourage private conservation efforts Dangers: Visitor overcapacity Haphazard adjacent development Inadequate enforcement of protected park areas due to a lack of funding, poor management, and uncertain government support Reliance on nongovernment funding Exploitation of local work force Culturally intensive development projects Panama Panama Canal Constructed by the US in 1914 and controlled by the US until 1999 A safer and shorter passage for vessels from the Pacific to the Atlantic Nearly 15,000 vessels per year Set of locks to raise vessels from sea level to the level of the artificial Gatun Lake Current width unchanged since 1914 New third lane will allow larger container vessels through Economic expansion in eastern US South Carolina Port Dredging The Caribbean Greater Antilles: Cuba, Puerto Rico, Hispaniola, and Jamaica Lesser Antilles: smaller islands English: Bahamas, Jamaica, British Virgin Islands, Montserrat, Cayman Islands, Bermuda Dutch: ABC Islands, Netherland Antilles, Saint Marteen French: Haiti, Guadelupe, Saint Martin, Matinique Spanish: Cuba, Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico Cuba Dictatorship to a communist revolution Universal healthcare/education United States trade embargo US citizens allowed to visit not “spend money” Bay of Pigs Hispaniola: Dominican republic and Haiti DR: Spanish speaking Strong economy Catholic Haiti: French speaking Poorest country in the western hemisphere Catholic/voodoo
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