New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

geography lessons 5-6

by: Lauren Price

geography lessons 5-6 Geography 101

Lauren Price
GPA 4.0

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

week 3 notes
World Geography
Erik Nicholas Johanson
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in World Geography

Popular in Geography

This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lauren Price on Monday September 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Geography 101 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Erik Nicholas Johanson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see World Geography in Geography at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.


Reviews for geography lessons 5-6


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/19/16
Geography Lecture 5: Mexico and Middle America 9/6/16 Middle America  Physical geography  ­Coastal lowlands and interior highlands ­Fault lines  ­Panama Canal, tropical rain forests, vertical climate zones, coral reefs, lake  Nicaragua, volcanic axis, archipelago, Isthmus of Panama, central  highlands Mesoamerican antiquity Colonial legacy  Early State­Level Civilization in Mesoamerica ­State­Level Civilizations (Olmec, Maya, and Aztec) 1. Urbanized society 2. Economic intensification and specialization 3. Monumental architecture and public buildings 4. Record keeping 5. State religion  Olmec ­Core area located in southern Gulf Coast of Mexico ­Olmec culture considered earliest example of cultural complexity in Mesoamerica  ­“Mother culture” for all latter civilizations  Mayan ­Mayan civilizations found in three major environments  ­Highland Guatemala and adjacent countries ­Lowland rainforests ­Dry scrub forests of northern Yucatan  ­Mayan dependent on maize agriculture ­Limited land due to soils, wetness, pop, so they devised techniques to maximize agricultural potential  ­Milpas: cleared plots of land; type of swidden agriculture (slash and burn) ­Chinampas: raised­field technique, “floating gardens” allowing planting in low, wet  areas  ­Several major centers emerged in Lowland Maya area including Tikal ­Mayan kings ruled vast territories and commanded remarkable wealth and power ­Warfare was partly a ritual phenomenon between elites ­Writing, records, calendars, astronomy ­Mayan collapse: great ceremonial centers were abandoned, the Long Count calendar  discontinued, and the structure of religious life and the state decayed ­Theories: ­Rapid population increase put pressure on the agricultural and economic system ­Exhaustion of soils, decreased agricultural productivity, warfare, and major  drought Aztec ­Aztecs were one of several semi­civilized Chichimeca groups who settled in the Valley  of Mexico ­Tenochtitlan: capital, flourished as a trading center (now beneath Mexico City),  population over 200,000 ­Planned streets and at least 40 pyramids ­City became more formidable through diplomacy, military alliances, and strategic royal  marriages Warfare: ­In the early 15th century, the Aztecs abruptly embarked on a long­term military and  economic conquest ­Rulers used terror and human sacrifice as a means of controlling conquered territory  ­Tribute from conquered basis of wealth  ­Tenochtitlan was captured by Spain, Hernando Cortéz, and named Mexico City to  erase evidence of Aztec order  ­Spaniards brought new diseases and wiped out Aztecs ­Cortés rebuilt the city with more European influence Mexico City became the new  capital of New Spain Colonialism  “Colonialism is a relationship between an indigenous majority and minority of foreign  invaders. The fundamental decisions affecting the lives of the colonized people are  made and implemented by the colonial rulers in pursuit of interest that are often defined  in a distant metropolis. Rejecting cultural compromises with the colonized population,  the colonizers are convinced of their own superiority and their ordained mandate to  rule.” Social order in the Spanish New World ­Sistema de Castas: a strict caste system ascribing social position based on race and  position of their parents ­Peninsulares: Spaniards and other whites born in Europe ­Creoles: Spaniards and other whites born in the Americas ­Indios: Amerindians  ­Mestizos: Mixed Amerindian and white ­Mulattos: Mixed African and white ­Zambos: Mixed Amerindian and African mix ­Negros: Africans  Mexican Independence  ­Hernan Cortes, under the Spanish crown took Mexico in 1519 ­The Mexican War of independence began in 1810 and lasted  over 11 years, Mexico  remained ruled by the economically elite, which typically meant non­indiginous, who  made up most of the population ­Despite territory battles and the Mexican American War in the middle and late 1800s,  Mexico remains loyal to the U.S. by not intervening in WW1 despite pressure from  Germany to do so ­Mexican political affairs center around trade with the US and the balance between a  majority of Mexican citizens who are economically disadvantaged and rising Mexico’s  presence in the world economy, and specifically, the Latin American economy.  Guatemala ­Guatemala City ­Tikal: Mesoamerican city, Mayan  Belize ­Belize Barrier Reef and the Blue Hole Geography Lecture 7: Central America and the Caribbean  Primate City ­Farther above than the next largest city ­Paris is one, 9.6 million compared to the next largest city Marseilles with 1.3 million ­India’s most populous city is Mumbai with 16 million and the next largest is Kolkata with more than 13 million ­Mexico city is a primate city ­US and Canada do not have primate cities Positive effects ­Advantages of agglomeration of economic activity ­Large market for goods and services ­Ability to offer high­end goods and services including education because of larger  threshold population ­Advantages of enhanced flow of information and ideas in large population ­Advantages of centralized transportation and communication network  Negative effects ­Stress on natural resources ­Uneven development ­Brain drain, all the top people want to move to the bigger city Tourism in Mexico ­It is focused in Cabos or in Cancun, though also in Mexico City ­Tourism does not provide for the locals, myth that tourism is automatically associated  with economic growth ­In Cabos around 30% of residents live in poverty, 5.6% in extreme poverty, similar  problem in Cancun  Mexican Independence  ­Cinco de Mayo is not Mexican independence  ­Cinco de Mayo commemorates the Mexican Army being victorious over French forces  at the Battle of Puebla on May 5, 1862 ­Cinco de Mayo has a much larger significance in the US as a celebration of Mexican­ American culture  ­Mexican Independence is somewhere in September Machismo and Latin America Gender Politics  ­Machismo: pride in being macho or manly with typical feminine characteristics seen as  undesirable  ­Advocates for providing and defending women (without assigning women an active role in society) ­Negative response in recent popular culture towards machismo culture ­Machismo attitudes often highlight the taking of multiple sexual partners by a single  male ­Contributed to increasing HIV/AIDS rates in Latin America Honduras  ­Capital: Tegucigalpa  Nicaragua ­Population of less than 6 million ­Large, freshwater lake in the middle of the country, lots of freshwater sharks ­Capital: Managua  ­One of the poorer countries in the region ­Grenada, huge tourist destination, an Atlantic seaport  Banana Wars ­US military interventions in Central America and Caribbean ­Reasons for these conflicts were varied but largely economic in nature ­These conflicts were called “banana wars” and related strongly to US commercial  interests (e.g. bananas, tobacco, sugar) Costa Rica  ­Biodiversity ­4.5 million people ­Capital: San Jose ­Coffee is a key crop ­They have no military ­“Blue zone” have a bigger average for age, people here tend to live longer ­San Vito: Italian  Caribbean Coast ­More picturesque beaches Pacific Coast ­More dry and mountainous  ­Jurassic Park was filmed here Interior Uplands and Volcanoes ­Tropical rain forests Ecotourism in Costa Rica ­Only country that bans all recreational hunting  ­Lots of national parks Ideally:  ­Provide financing for parks and conservation efforts ­Serve as economic justification for the preservation of nature parks and wildlife ­Reduce exploitation of conservation areas by supplying local peoples with viable  economic alternatives ­Promote environmentalism and conservation ­Encourage private conservation efforts Dangers:  ­Visitor overcapacity ­Haphazard adjacent development ­Inadequate enforcement of protected park areas due to a lack of funding, poor  management, and uncertain government support ­Reliance on non­government funding  ­Exploitation of local work force ­Culturally intensive development projects Panama  Panama Canal ­Constructed by the US in 1914 and controlled by the US until 1999 ­A safer and shorter passage for vessels from the Pacific to the Atlantic ­Nearly 15,000 vessels per year ­Set of locks to raise vessels from sea level to the level of the artificial Gatun Lake  ­Current width unchanged since 1914 ­New third lane will allow larger container vessels through ­Economic expansion in eastern US ­South Carolina Port Dredging  The Caribbean  Greater Antilles: Cuba, Puerto Rico, Hispaniola, and Jamaica Lesser Antilles: smaller islands  English: Bahamas, Jamaica, British Virgin Islands, Montserrat, Cayman Islands,  Bermuda Dutch: ABC Islands, Netherland Antilles, Saint Marteen French: Haiti, Guadelupe, Saint Martin, Matinique Spanish: Cuba, Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico Cuba Dictatorship to a communist revolution ­Universal healthcare/education ­United States trade embargo ­US citizens allowed to visit not “spend money” ­Bay of Pigs Hispaniola: Dominican republic and Haiti DR: ­Spanish speaking ­Strong economy ­Catholic Haiti: ­French speaking ­Poorest country in the western hemisphere ­Catholic/voodoo


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Anthony Lee UC Santa Barbara

"I bought an awesome study guide, which helped me get an A in my Math 34B class this quarter!"

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.