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by: Caroline Smith

BIOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT #3377 Human Development 101

Caroline Smith
GPA 3.0

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About this Document

These notes do a quick review over biology regarding human development, such as heredity and genetics. Can be used in addition to the "nature" vs. "nurture" debate.
Human Development through the Lifespan
Dr. Scofield
Class Notes
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caroline Smith on Monday September 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to #3377 Human Development 101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Scofield in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 61 views.

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Date Created: 09/19/16
BIOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT (CHAPTER 2)  Biology o Cells: basic unit of life  e.g., skin cells, blood cells, brain cells o Nucleus ­> Chromosomes ­> DNA ­> Genes  DNA, Genes o Genes: segment of DNA  Codes for specific traits  30,000 genes  for traits such as:  Intelligence  Personality  Sexuality  Athleticism  Polygenic: when multiple genes code for an overall trait [i.e.,  skin color, height, etc.] o DNA: deoxyribonucleic acid  Carries entire genetic code   Chromosomes o 23 pairs of chromosomes  ½ from mom, ½ from dad o 22 pairs of autosomes  Code for most genetic traits o 1 pair of sex chromosomes  Code for biological sex  XX (girl) or XY (boy)  Y carries less genetic material   Cell Division o Mitosis: is nuclear division plus cytokinesis, and produces two  identical daughter cells during prophase, prometaphase, metaphase,  anaphase, and telophase.  [Here is a short clip to review the process. It will not be a major part of this  course. ]  Cell division for most cells o Meiosis: is the process whereby chromosomes are copied, paired up and separated to create eggs or sperm.  [Here is a short clip to  review the process. It will not be a major part of this  course. ]  Cell division for sex cells  Sperm (male sex cell); Egg (female sex cell) o Crossing Over (genetic recombination)  Ensures genetic variability   Unique cell with 23 chromosomes  Fertilization [Here is a video to show the process of  fertilization] o Zygote: fertilized egg  Sperm (23 chromosomes)  Egg (ovum) (23 chromosomes) o Twins  Monozygotic (Identical)  1 egg fertilized, divides  3/1000 = twins  Dizygotic (Fraternal)  2 eggs released and fertilized   These types of twins are becoming more common due  to modern fertilization methods.  Heredity o Dominant/ recessive heredity [Here is a quick review video for this  section.]  Traits coded by 2 alleles  1 from mom, 1 from dad  Dominant (Y); Recessive (y)  Homozygous  Alike alleles [YY, yy]  Heterozygous  Unalike alleles [Yy]  Carrier: carries, not expresses, recessive allele  o Genotype: underlying genetic code [YY, Yy, yy] o Phenotype: expressed trait [In this example, Y stands for the  dominant trait of yellow peas. "y" stands for the recessive trait of  green peas. So the phenotype would be either yellow or green.] o X­linked (sex­linked) traits v=h2xufrHWG3E (Here is a short video with a review)]  X chromosome contains more genetic material than Y  chromosome  Recessive traits on X are passed to male offspring  Colorblindness, albinism, hemophilia, baldness  More common in males than females (10:1)  Chromosomal Abnormalities o Example: Trisomy 21 (Down's Syndrome)  Mental Retardation  Speech and problems  Vision and breathing problems  Shortened Lifespan  25 to 49 years old  Decreased fertility  o Sex chromosomes  Klinefelter's (XXY)  XYY Syndrome   Triple X (XXX)  Turner's (XO) [Only one X chromosome]  Decreased fertility  Misdeveloped sex features  Genitals  Fat/muscle distribution  Body hair   Environment o Prenatal (e.g., hormones, drugs, alcohol, disease) o    Postnatal  Physical (e.g., air, water, nutrition)  Social  Family (e.g., birth order, parenting, SES) (non­shared  environmental influences)  Peers (e.g., number, kind) (Harris 'parents don't matter')  Community (e.g., size, location, schools)  Culture (e.g., norms, values, religion, practices)  Reaction Range o How do genes and environment interact?   For example, if I have a genetic range that in height in my  family from 5' 7" to 6' 2", then my environment can  determine where I fall on this range. If I grew up in poverty,  then I have the possibility of falling toward the 5' 7" side of  the reaction range. If I have better access to nutrition, then I  have a higher possibility of falling towards the 6' 2" side of  the reaction range.  Behavioral Genetics o Genes and environment not independent.   Passive effects: parents pass genes to child  e.g., webbed feet, etc.  Evocative effects: child genes bring out responses from  environment  e.g., peers call child "frog­boy"   Active effects: child finds environment that fits genes (i.e.,  niche­picking)  e.g., becomes swimmer   Concordance Rates o The chance that 2 individuals have the same trait  Identical Twins  Criminality: 50%  Alcoholism: 55%  Sexuality: 50%  Depression: 45%  Autism: 60%  Intelligence: 85%  Schizophrenia: 45%  Cancer: 16%  Diabetes: 50%  Fraternal Twins  Criminality: 20%  Alcoholism: 30%  Sexuality: 20%  Depression: 25%  Autism: 5­10%  Intelligence: 55%  Schizophrenia: 15%  Cancer: 13%  Diabetes: 10%


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