PSYC101, Week 4, Sensation and Perception Pt. 2
PSYC101, Week 4, Sensation and Perception Pt. 2 PSYC 101
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Samantha Wammack on Monday September 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 101 at Boise State University taught by Brian Stone in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Boise State University.
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Date Created: 09/19/16
Sensation and Perception Pt. 2 9-15-16 *Close your eyes and lightly press finger against eye * Doctrine of specific nerve energies: the nature of perception (whether the experience is visual, auditory, touch, etc.) is defined by the neural pathway over which the sensory information is carried. • Mechanical pressure from touch is what stimulated the nerves in your eye, causing them to fire. • But we perceive it as a visual experience (even though its not caused by light) because those sensory neurons in the eye lead back into the occipital lobe. • Cochlear implants Transduction: the process by which physical signals are converted into neural signals that then go to the brain to become interpreted. • In other words, a physical stimulus hits a sensory neuron (sensation) which causes that sensory neuron to fire ( transduction) so now instead of a physical thing like light waves or sound waves, it’s just a series of action potentials which go to the brain. • Then, the brain interprets/organizes those neural signals into what we experience (perception). Vision Retina: a bundle of sensory neurons that transduce light waves ( physical signals) into action potentials (neural signals). • Along the back, inner wall of the eye. • The neural signals go out the back at the optic nerve, then go through he thalamus to the occipital lobe. • The human retina has different types of sensory neurons: rods and cones. • 3 types of cones: sensitive to wavelengths that we perceive as red, green, or blue. Rods Cones • Night Vision (dim light) • Day/Light Vision • Black + White (no color) • Color Vision • Big Picture/Motion • Details • Peripheral Vision • Fovea: what you focus on • The physical stimulus is light waves of different wavelengths and amplitude. • We experience it as different colors. • We perceive color once the neural signals get processed in the occipital lobe later on. 1. Light waves themselves are not colored. They have no color. Objects are not colored. Our visual system processes input from 450nm (nanometer) light waves into a blue perception. 2 Color Blindness: Some people only have two types of cones (or 1) so they see less variety of colors. 1. From the retina, it goes out the optic nerve. 2. Crosses over. 3. Goes through the thalamus (the sensory gateway). 4. Ends up in V1 (primary visual cortex) 5. The left visual field is processed by the right hemisphe re…right field by left hemisphere. Contralateral processing: contralateral=opposite side. V1 (primary visual cortex): main visual processing center • Contains neurons specialized to respond best to very specific aspects of a stimulus (orientation, size, direction of movement) • Each V1 neuron is tuned to fire only for a very specific stimulus or feature. Example: Vertical line in left visual field, or tilted line in right visual field, etc. • Cells later in processing only fire for a combination of features. v What’s the point of different neurons having different sensitivities (different things each one fires for)? o Acts as a filter so that different neurons fire to different input. o Brain combines all of those inputs to build up an interpretation of the scene in front of us. o Starts with detecting simple features, reconstructing the input by putting them together into more complex features. • Damage to different brain areas leads to different symptoms. This helps us identify what those brain areas do. Example: Guy that thought his wife’s head was a hat. 3
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