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Hist 112 - Week Three Notes

by: MadPie

Hist 112 - Week Three Notes HIST 112

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Here are my notes from Week Three Covering Late Medieval Asia.
World Civilization 1500-Pres
Eric P. Cunningham
Class Notes
history, Asia, medieval
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by MadPie on Monday September 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 112 at Gonzaga University taught by Eric P. Cunningham in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views.

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Date Created: 09/19/16
History 112 :: Week Three, Study Soup [[ Tuesday 9/13 ]] Absent [[ Thursday 9/15 ]] Collapse of the Mongol Empire, Becoming Ming Dynasty Ming Dynasty [1368-1644] >> Chinese dynasty history is cyclical/wave-like >> Under the Mongols, 35% of China’s population disappeared — Mismanagement, war, etc. >> First Emperor << Zhu Yuanzhang // Religious holy man who was able to get people excited • • People like him are also referred to as “righteous bandits” // Japanese history • Favored to take over the dynasty • Peasant class // Promises to restore village life to the peasants • Makes a claim to the gentry class [Think Mulan’s father] to restore their property rights • Becomes Ming Hongwu [Emperor Name] Drove the Mongols out of China // Took about 30 years • • Restore Economy // Restores agriculture life // Rebuilding dams, canals, rice fields, horse stables, etc. • By the time his grandson took the throne, within 40 or 50 years, China’s population was more than it was before Mongol take-over • Relocated the capital // It was in Beijing, a Mongol city // Moved to Nanjing Rebuilt Great Wall of China was built // Barbarians stayed out • • Restoration of Mandarin government // Government rules by scholars // Scholarship was equivalent to virtue // Scholarship meant cultivating virtue, reading the classics, etc. • Makes an appeal to the scholars to restore Confucian learning • Confucius [551-479 BC] // History was most important means of capturing virtue // • 5 relationships :: 1. Father to Son 2. Ruler to Ruled 3. Husband to Wife 4. Big brother to Little brother 5. Friend to Friend - Each relationship had a virtue that made it work - The way that a society should work - If these relationships were kept in tact, then society would rule itself - Very patriarchal society • Brought back academies, learning facilities, etc. • Dao :: Road or path // “The Way” // Have to practice virtue /// Have to cultivate harmony >> Second Emperor << • Yongle • Ming Hongwu’s son // Ming Hongwu’s best general • 6 great voyages - Historically unprecedented - Initially for trade - To show the flag // Gain prestige for the emperor - Arrive in India, Coast of Africa, Middle East, etc. bringing presents, gaining vassals, are not conquering anyone - 60 extremely large ships, 255 smaller support ships - As soon as he dies, the voyages are shut down >> Why the Chinese never established a Maritime Empire • Medicine and animals >> Jesuits and Ming Dynasty << 1549 // St. Francis Xavier [St. Ignatius’ best friend] • - Long sea voyages to India - Finds that Indians are being treated like third class citizens, not welcomed into religious community - Went on a ship with a Chinese pirate - Lands in Japan and starts preaching during a Civil War, not very successful - Tried to make it into China, dies on beach outside of Chine [1552] - Never got more than 1,000 converts • 1582 // Matteo Ricci - Changed strategy of Xavier - Conversion Strategy 1. Top Down Approach // Went to the elites first // If you can convert the rulers, the rest would follow 2. Accommodation Strategy // “Find the Christ that is already there” // Find the common ground // Confucius was the “Christ that is already there” 3. Intellectual Expertise // - Got a job on the Chinese court to become one of them - Told them you have the perfect religion but you are missing a redeemer, then they began to covert Crisis of the Ming Dynasty >> Ming Dynasty :: Political and economic decline • Little Ice Age - Infant mortality - Agriculture decline - Sickness, death, starvation • Silver glut - Inflation - Caused by Spanish >> Manchu Dynasty :: Birth • 1592 :: Japanese invade Korea • 1594 :: Japanese invade Korea again • Chinese have to send in troops to Korea to fight against Japanese • 1644 :: Manchus have completely conquered the Chinese empire in the same way that the Mongols had conquered the Chinese empire Manchus fashioned themselves as a Chinese Dynasty and become the Qin Dynasty // • Not event Chinese Nurhaci :: First of Qing Dynasty emperors • [1615] Creates a Qin kingdom // Manchu tribe Hong Taji :: Successor of Nurhaci • [1623] Changes to Qing Dynasty // Also telling the Chinese that they are getting ready to replace it as the central empire // Almost act of war in changing name • [1644] Marches army into capital >> Ming Corruption << • Government is run by scholars • To get into government, you have to be the smartest guy in town // Can buy favors // Political favors give to the wrong people • No creative solutions on how to fix the economy • Not a good trade system // No silk road • Leaving Ming to become Manchu is like an American saying they will become a Canadian during the 2016 elections • Jesuits managed to hang on to their positions for a while >> Rites Controversy << • Under Qing Dynasty • Starts with more Catholics coming into China // Franciscans, Dominicans, etc. • Jesuits participating in Confucian rites, wearing Chinese clothing // Confused religious devotion // Other Catholics coming into China report to Pope because they think they aren’t acting like Jesuits • Pope asks them to stop hanging around Confucian temples, wearing Chinese clothing so the Chinese emperor gets mad at the Pope so the Chinese emperor kicks out all the Catholics // Out of the court, out of the government // Because of Catholic infighting


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