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CORE-UA 537 Modern Israel week 1

by: Yuma Iwasaki

CORE-UA 537 Modern Israel week 1 CORE-UA 537-001

Marketplace > New York University > Core Curriculum > CORE-UA 537-001 > CORE UA 537 Modern Israel week 1
Yuma Iwasaki
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About this Document

Class notes from week 1 (Class #1, #2).
Cultures and Contexts: Modern Israel
Ronald Zweig
Class Notes
ModernIsrael, Israel, CoreCurriculum, notes, studyguides, NYU, fall2016, CORE-UA537, RonaldZweig




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Yuma Iwasaki on Monday September 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CORE-UA 537-001 at New York University taught by Ronald Zweig in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Cultures and Contexts: Modern Israel in Core Curriculum at New York University.

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Date Created: 09/19/16
Yuma Iwasaki Cultures & Contexts: Modern Israel, Fall 2016 Class 1: Zionism September 6, 2016 The Ottoman Empire  Controls virtually all of middle east  Power weakens as it joins the losing side of the war  Loses WWI & loses control of the empire   he empire is divided between France & UK Establishment of League of Nations …Instead of lands being divided into French and British territories, they were held as "mandates" so that  they can eventually gain independence. Britain  British wants to give up mandate of Iraq (British thinks the land is not worth the time and effort it takes to try to control it).  Suez Canal – vital to import and export, which was Britain’s main business during this time,  making this canal extremely valuable to Britain. The canal also leads to India, which was the source of labor for armies and workforce.  Britain takes control of Palestine to prevent other countries from accessing the Suez Canal. Beginning of nationalism within Ottoman empire: …Nationalism: the wanting of a separate representation within the empire (not necessarily equal to the  desire of becoming a separate state)  Turkish vs. Arabic  Arab nationals fight for "greater Syria" (Palestine didn't exist back then)  At the same time, political movement for Jewish nationals begin (known as "Zionism")  Arabs seek British help to revolt against the Turks; does not work  Jewish exile  As Jews dispersed across the world, the story goes that they returned to the land after the  Messiah. In actuality, Jews planned to return to Israel as living conditions deteriorated in Europe.  "A land without people is a land for people without a land" – Israel was not empty, but had  become a Muslim land under the control of the Arabs. …Britain decides to team up with Jews (they wanted American Jews and Russian Jews to be supportive  of Britain). Because Jews were natives of the land, they had resources & intelligence which was useful  when crossing the desert.    Declaration of Palestine: Britain declares that they support the establishment of Jewish  community within Palestine as long as it doesn't harm the interests of the already existing  population of Palestine.  They then invade Palestine and are stuck with two promises 1) to give the land to Arabs 2) to give the land to Jews West of the mountain gets ample rain (Palestine) / east of the mountain is infertile and is mostly a  desert (Jordan)Britain decides that the West will belong to the Jews, east to Arabs. Yuma Iwasaki Cultures & Contexts: Modern Israel, Fall 2016  After 30 years of British mandating Palestine, they accepted that they can't bring Jews and Arabs  together and allowed each nation to develop separately Refugee phenomenon  Israeli Palestine population grows rapidly as Nazis take control of Europe. Due to this, Arabs  become alarmed that Jews will become a majority in Israel and starts to revolt against the British  mandate  Jews from all Arab countries get exiled and ends up in Israel & Palestine  ­        1947 Britain doesn't want mandate of this troubled state, and gives back the land to UN. In  November 1947, UN finally decides to officially divide Palestine amongst Arabs & Israeli. Yuma Iwasaki Cultures & Contexts: Modern Israel, Fall 2016 Class 2: War of 1948 September 8, 2016 1939 – British mandate begins During the British mandate, population of both Arabs and Jews in Palestine grew substantially. Britain promised the Jews a "home" which they felt they successfully provided (there were over 600,000  Jews in Palestine). 1947 – Britain returns the mandate to the UN Argument: did Britain really want to return the mandate? Or were they hoping that the UN revise the  mandate so they have more control over Palestine?   Under UN supervision, Palestine was divided between Jews and Arabs (11.29.1947)  The problem was to divide a state in a way that least number of Jews would be left in the Arab  state and vice versa.  Jews owned most of the land (56%), even though they were only 1/3 of the population. However,  most of the land that were left to the Jews (southern parts) were essentially useless, since most of  the land used for agriculture was the northern part of Palestine.  Jews accepted the division plan, but the Arab nationals rejected the plan – Britain decided not to  intervene and left Jews and the Arabs fighting. Palestine collapses into violent and bloody civil war. Civil War ­­ during the next few months, it looks as though the Arabs were winning. Around April 1948,  the battle shifts; Jews reorganize and gains the upper hand. After this, Jews end up gaining control of all  the areas that were allocated to the Jews by UN.  Progressive internal collapse of Palestine, as Arab professionals such as professors and doctors  leave Palestine to go to Lebanon, etc. If Arabs wanted to go to the hospital, the only way to do so  was to go to a Jewish hospital. ­ Several armies: “Haganah” (defender), “Palamach” (commander), “Irgun” (organization), “Etzel”  (national army), “Stern” known in Hebrew as “Lehi” (fighters for the Israeli freedom) intimidated  the Arab population  Etzel and Lehi attacks the hilly parts of Palestine controlled by Arabs. This was both strategic and malicious, as these villages controlled the routes from Jerusalem to the top of the hill. At the time,  Red Cross announced around 240 murders of Arabs by Jews but in reality, it was a lot more.  (Incident known as Deir Yassin)  Refugee problems occur as atrocities against Jews occur. 1/3 of the Palestinian Jews population  died during this civil war.  1948, Palestinian Arabs resistant force begins to collapse, and Palestinian Jews overwhelm Arab  forces despite Arabs having more manpower. As Jewish force becomes powerful, they attempt to  push the 45% of Arab population out of the Jewish state within Palestine. Israeli policy: if the village doesn't oppose Jewish forces, they're allowed to stay. If they do  oppose, they will be compelled to leave and the village would be destroyed. Starts off as a polite policy but ends up as an expulsion.  After the civil war, Jews controlled 72% of Palestinian land, which created the border of Israel. *Neither the Jews nor the Arabs wanted a Palestinian Arab state. Yuma Iwasaki Cultures & Contexts: Modern Israel, Fall 2016   Figures David Ben Gurion – leader of Jewish community and the first Israeli Prime Minister (longest residing  Prime Minister in Israeli history) Moshe Sharett – Gurion’s #2 man, also the Foreign Minister who devoted to solving the conflict between  Arabs & Jews Refugee ship “Exodus” – carried victims from the holocaust to Palestine; when the British captured this  ship, they returned the passengers back to Germany which lead to criticism from the international  community which eventually lead to Britain's giving up of the mandate Mufti Haj Amin al­Hussaini – most important Palestinian political leader, very controversial Emir Abudullah of Jordan – king of Jordan (Transjordan); he and the Jewish military had an agreement to not attack each other as long as Jews didn't cross their border. Assassinated by a Palestinian. John Glubb – British officer who lead the Arab region. Responsible for a lot of the Arab fighting against  the Jews. Ralph Bunche – African American diplomat. Negotiated the armistice agreement between Jordan &  Israel, Syria & Israel, and Syria & Jordan. First American winner of the Nobel peace prize. Demographic consequences All of Palestine, 1946: Jews: 608,000 Arabs: 1,077,000  Muslims: 145,000  Christians: 155,000 Israel, 1948: Jews: 650,000 Arabs: 150,000 Arab refugees: 720,000 (not accurate)   Armistice agreement Didn't work properly because the borders weren't very clear. A lot of "no man's land".  Sea of Galilee – the only reservoir in this area; whoever controls this sea has significant power. International law: if 2 different states control the bordering lands of the sea, water must be divided  equally.


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