NFS 143 Nutrition in the Lifecycle. Nutrition through Pregnancy/Normal Infant Nutrition
NFS 143 Nutrition in the Lifecycle. Nutrition through Pregnancy/Normal Infant Nutrition NFS 143
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Grace Cotrupi on Monday September 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to NFS 143 at University of Vermont taught by Farryl Bertmann in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Nutrition in the life cycle in Nutrition and Food Sciences at University of Vermont.
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Date Created: 09/19/16
Nutrition through Pregnancy/Infant Nutrition Tuesday, September 6, 2016 10:04 AM Gestational Diabetes Appears in 5% of all pregnancies Usually detected between 24-28 weeks of pregnancy Can usually be treated by lifestyle adjustments Tested with an oral glucose tolerance test (drink sugary drink, blood tests to see how body is metabolizing sugar) Children born of women with diabetes are more likely to be larger, higher chance of C-section Lifestyle and Pregnancy Pregnant women are more likely to be willing to make lifestyle adjustments Alcohol Consumption o 50% of pregnancies are unplanned, so early drinking when women are unaware they are pregnant can be problematic. o There is no safe amount of alcohol consumption during pregnancy. o Can result in fetal alcohol syndrome. Small head, low nasal bridge, small eye openings, flat midface, underdeveloped jaw, thin upper lip, smooth philtrum, short nose Caffeine Consumption o There may be an increased risk of miscarriage among women who consume more that 300 mg/day Normal Infant Nutrition Growth in Infancy CDC charts are based on Midwestern, Caucasian babies. WHO charts take into account other factors that impact healthy growth. Colic Uncontrolled crying or fussing in an otherwise healthy infant o Rule of three: starts at 3 weeks of age, more than three hours of crying at least three days a week, last more than three weeks Resolves spontaneously Mother drinking cows milk is linked to colic Food safety Using bottles increases risk of food born illness. Complementary foods can increase risk of foodborne illness. Also don't want to be overly sterile Nutrient Requirements Breast milk changes to meet the needs of the child Food should be energy dense Protein - birth to six months is 1.5 g per kg per day Fatty acids o Growing concern that infants need long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (found in breast milk) o Iron - Most common childhood nutritional deficiency worldwide. Causes delays in motor and cognitive development as a result of irreversible brain damage. Delaying clamping the umbilical cord gives the child additional iron at birth. o Zinc - deficiency is linked to reduced activity/play/growth o Vitamin D - Can cause rickets o After six months, introduce complementary foods 12% vitamin A 25-50% copper 50-75% thiamin, niacin and manganese 98% of iron and zinc Breast feeding o Not breastfeeding Infection, otitis media, lower respiratory tract infection, etc. SIDS increases, Necrotizing enterocolitis increases Risk of atopic dermatitis, leukemia, lymphoma, asthma, diabetes Decreased cognitive development Increased obesity Pathogen contamination in formula o In third world countries, even if the mother is HIV positive it is safer for the child to breast feed than use formula. o In first world countries, AIDS/HIV mothers are recommended to use formula. o Breastfeeding successfully 8-12 times a day Mother should not have nipple pain Baby is growing appropriately >6 wet diapers, >3 yellow seedy stools
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