Chapter 4 Notes
Chapter 4 Notes CCJ 4450
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amber Sharpnack on Monday September 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CCJ 4450 at Florida Gulf Coast University taught by Dr. Shawn Keller in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Leadership and Management in Criminal Justice in Criminal Justice at Florida Gulf Coast University.
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Date Created: 09/19/16
Chapter 4: Personality Personality: the unique combination of ways of thinking and behaving that make an individual who they are. A stable set of characteristics and tendencies that determine the commonalities and differences in the psychological behavior (thoughts, feelings, and actions) of people. May not be easily understood as the sole result of the social and biological pressures of the moment. Situational Factors: a definite influence on personality. Basic assumptions about human behavior are drawn from interactional psychology: 1. Behavior is a function of a continuous, multidirectional interaction between the person and the situation. 2. The person is active in this process, both changing the situation and being changed by it. 3. People differ from each other in many characteristics, including cognition, affect (emotion), motivation, and ability. 4. Both the objective situation and the person’s subjective view of the situation are important. Heredity: the factors present at birth, such as physical stature, gender, energy level, muscular composition, reflexes, and temperament. Culture: a system of shared beliefs, values, attitudes, and meanings that guide individual behavior. Socialization: interactions with significant others such as parents, teachers, and peers. Culture in Organization: 1. Provides a sense of identity to members and increases their commitment to the organization or their work group (a sense of belonging). 2. Provides a way for members to interpret the meaning of organizational events and the organization’s external environment. 3. Reinforces the values of the organization; everybody knows what counts and the right way to do things. 4. Serves as a behavioral control mechanism for organizational members. Psychoanalytical Theory: Sigmund Freud developed the first theory of personality. Believed the human mind is dominated by the unconscious and claimed that to truly understand a person’s behavior with underlying feelings. Personality results from the interaction between three parts of the mind: Id – presents at birth and is the source of impulses that operate in an uncensored manner. Strives to fulfill basic needs. Operates on pleasure principle and demands immediate and complete gratification. Primitive, uninhibited, not subject to rational control (unconsciously). Ego – begins to develop shortly after birth, when the child realizes that everything wanted is not immediately available. Only component that has access to and a relationship with the actual environment. Distinguishes between what exists in the subjective mind and the reality of the external world. Functions unconsciously. Superego – shaped by society’s concepts of what is right/wrong and conduct that is acceptable/unacceptable. Norms and standards of behavior formed during childhood. Concerned with morality and influences. Defense Mechanisms: one way people distance themselves from a full awareness of unpleasant thoughts, feelings, and behaviors (unconsciously). Projection: see in others the traits or characteristics they have themselves. Avoidance: consistently withdraw from conflict situations involving subordinates. Rationalization: individual validates their behavior by offering a different explanation in the face of changing reality. Reaction formation: individual converts unwanted and non- acceptable thoughts, feelings, or impulses into the opposites. Sublimation: channeling of unacceptable impulses, thoughts, and emotions into acceptable ones. Denial: the refusal to accept reality or fact of a situation. Trait Theory: focuses on specific attributes peculiar to individuals. Trait: basic descriptive terms for how each individual interacts within both society and organizations. Allport and Odbert modes in which traits influence behavior: 1. Cardinal: a single trait dominating the behavior of an individual (rare). 2. Central: an individual’s behavior is the expression of a larger group. 3. Secondary: displayed by the individuals but fluctuate and change. Police Personality: trait theory implicitly applied to these manifestations. Multiple Hurdles Screening Process: attempts to hire qualified candidates who are better able to adjust to the demands of police work. Consists of: 1. Application 7. Character and background 2. Written exam investigation 3. Oral interview 8. Medical exam 4. Physical ability test 9. Police academy training 5. Polygraph 10. Field-training 6. Psychological testing program (traits) 11. Probationary period 12. 13. Five Factor Model: personality theory also based on pre- dispositional traits, valuable in understanding personality and work behavior. Core traits and descriptions: 1. Conscientiousness: dependable, hardworking, organized, self- disciplined, persistent, responsible. 2. Emotional stability: calm, secure, happy, unworried. 3. Agreeableness: cooperative, warm, caring, good-natured, courteous, trusting. 4. Extraversion: sociable, outgoing, talkative, assertive, gregarious. 5. Openness to experience: curious, intellectual, creative, cultured, artistically sensitive, flexible, imaginative. 14. 15. Humanistic Theory: views each individual as important in determining their own growth. Congruent: individual functions at the highest level, is open, does not react defensively, gets along with others, and possess high self- esteem. Incongruent: tense or anxious, may react defensively as a means of protecting and preserving the view they have of themselves. 16. 17. Locus of Control: a person’s belief about the control they have over the events that happen in their life. Internals: believe that they themselves are responsible for what happens to them. Externals: believe that what happens to them is determined by situations or other people. 18. 19. Type A Behavior: characterized by a competitive striving for achievement, an exaggerated sense of time urgency, and a tendency toward aggressiveness and hostility. 20. 21. Type B Behavior: described as easygoing and not especially competitive. 22. 23. Emotional Intelligence (EQ): the ability to recognize and understand one’s own and others’ feelings and emotions, to discriminate among them, and to use this awareness to manage the self and relationships with others. 24. 25. Unique Skills of EQ: Self-Awareness: cognitive ability to accurately appraise one’s own emotions, feelings, and behaviors. Self-Management: ability to use awareness of self-emotions to stay flexible and positively directed. Social Awareness: ability to accurately pick up on emotions in other people and understand what is really going on. Relationship Management: ability to use awareness of your emotions and the emotions of others to manage interactions successfully. 26. Bureaucratic Orientation: 1. Exhibit absolute conformity and adherence to rules and regulations. Individualization is minimal; abstract rules dominate operations. 2. Social interactions are impersonal and are not allowed to interfere with their decisions and other organizational processes. 3. Accept higher authority without question. The chain of command dominates and must never be violated. 4. Traditionalists and supporters of the status quo. 5. Operate deep within the box of rules, focusing on what was and is, not what could be.
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