BIOL1107: Cells and their Systems
BIOL1107: Cells and their Systems BIOL 1107
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Brittany Ariana Borzillo
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brittany Ariana Borzillo on Monday September 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1107 at University of Georgia taught by Norris A. Armstrong in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see Principles of Biology I in Biology at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 09/19/16
CELLS AND THEIR SYSTEMS ENDOMEMBRANE SYSTEM A group of membranes and organelles that work to modify, package, and transport lipids and proteins o Organelles include the nuclear envelope, lysosomes, vesicles, the endoplasmic reticulum, and the Golgi apparatus Endoplasmic Reticulum o A series of interconnected membranous sacs and tubules that collectively modifies proteins and synthesizes lipids o Rough ER Ribosomes attached to its cytoplasmic surface Ribosomes transfer the newly synthesized proteins into the lumen of the Rough ER where they undergo structural modification Transport vesicles will move the proteins if they need to be moved Abundant in cells that secrete protein o Smooth ER Few to no ribosomes Synthesize carbohydrates, lipids, and steroid hormones Detoxifies medicines and poisons Stores Ca2+ Golgi Apparatus o Sorting, tagging, packaging, and distributing lipids and proteins o Receiving side is the cis side, opposite is the trans o The transport vesicle from the ER fuses with the receiving side and empties its contents o Both lipids and proteins get modified Often add short chains of sugar molecules Tagged with phosphate group or other small molecules Lysosomes o Use hydrolytic enzymes to destroy pathogens o Digestive properties o Used for organelle recycling ORGANELLES Plasma membrane o Phospholipid bilayer with embedded proteins o Microvilli Cells that specialize in absorption Cytoplasm o Entire region of a cell between the plasma membrane and the nuclear membrane o Organelles suspended in the gel-like cytosol the cytoskeleton and various chemicals o 70-80% water o cytosol has proteins that make it semisolid o glucose, polysaccharides, amino acids, nucleic acids, fatty acids, and derivatives of glycerol are present; ions dissolved in it Nucleus o houses the cell’s DNA and directs synthesis of ribosomes and proteins Nuclear Envelope o Double-membrane structure that constitutes the outermost portion of the nucleus o Punctured with pores for the passage of ions, molecules, and RNA between nucleoplasm and cytoplasm Nucleoplasm is a semisolid fluid inside the nucleus Where you find chromatin and the nucleus Chromatin and Chromosomes o Structures within the nucleus that are made of DNA o linear structures o specific number of chromosomes used in nuclei o only visible/distinguishable when the cell is preparing to divide o chromatin unwound protein – chromosome complexes Nucleolus o Aggregates rRNA (ribosomal) with associated proteins to assemble ribosomal subunits which will be transported into the cytoplasm through the nuclear envelope Ribosomes o Cellular structures responsible for protein synthesis Mitochondria o Produce ATP Short term stored energy Needs oxygen for production o Inner layer cistae o Outer layer mitochondrial matrix o The different layers play different roles in cellular respiration Peroxisomes o Small, round organelles o oxidation reactions that break down fatty acids and amino acids o detoxify poisons Vesicles and Vacuoles o Membrane-bound sacs that store and transport o Vesicles fuse with the membrane and vacuoles do not CYTOSKELETON Network of protein fibers that help maintain the shape, secure organelles, allow movement of cytoplasm and vesicles, and enables cells in multicellular organisms to move Microfilaments o Narrowest protein fiber o Made of two intertwined strands of globular protein (actin) Formed with the use of ATP Filamentous formed serves as a track for the movement of myosin (motor protein) o Provide rigidity o can disassemble and reassemble quickly Flagella o long hair-like structures that are used to move the entire cell o functions for movement Cilia o short hair-like structures used to move the entire cell o many extend from the cell Microtubules o Made of polymerized dimers of two globular proteins o Widest component of cytoskeleton o Provide track for vesicles to move o Pull replicated chromosomes into new cells during division o Structural elements of cilia, flagella, and centrioles Intermediate Filaments o No role in movement o Structural support o Hold organelles in place
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