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Chimpanzees and Primate Ecology

by: Mary Jo Davison Gould

Chimpanzees and Primate Ecology ANT 301

Marketplace > University of Texas at Austin > ANT 301 > Chimpanzees and Primate Ecology
Mary Jo Davison Gould

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About this Document

Learn about chimpanzees and what makes them who they are. Also learn a brief 101 on Primate ecology.
Edward Kirk
Class Notes
chimpanzees, primateecology, Anthropology
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mary Jo Davison Gould on Monday September 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANT 301 at University of Texas at Austin taught by Edward Kirk in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views.


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Date Created: 09/19/16
Chimpanzees! Chimps – Pan Found in tropical Africa Two Species  Common Chimpanzee (pan troglodytes)  Pygmy Chimpanzee or Bonobo (Pan paniscus) Common Chimpanzee  Body mass- F47kg, M 60kg (not monomorphic)  Mainly terrestrial and a knuckle walker (like gorillas)  Core of the social group – band of related males defend a large area the contains smaller female ranges o Bonds between women are usually weak unless they are mother- daughter and maybe sisters o Males like to stick together and do things together. They protect the females from other male groups in surrounding territories.  Diet: Ripe fruit and……. Monkeys (monkeys are their favorite thing to eat, usually the higher ones are able to eat it) o Sometimes resort to cannibalism  Manufacture and use many types of tools o Every day they make and use tools  Learned with regional variation (culture) o Different tool kits for different forests o Learn from their parents Pygmy Chimpanzee  Bonobo  Found in Africa  Body mass – F 31kg, M39kg  Also known as a knuckle walker…. Bipedal when carrying things (common chimps too) o Said that they do it more than the common chimp  Core of social group – band of unrelated females cooperate to collectively dominate males o Females protect each other from males o Males inherit their rank from their mothers  Female bonds reinforced by sex o They rub their clitoris against each other o Males will rub their penis together, known as penis fencing  Sex is the currency to social behavior and occurs between ALL group members o Sex is a common way to do things. o It is part of their social life o EVERYONE DOES IT o One sexual pairing that does not happen is moms with their sons Primate Ecology  Study of how primates interact with their environment (including other organisms)  Most primates live in tropical habitats o Between cancer and Capricorn o Within the tropics, there is a diverse range of primate habitats (rainfall more or less and etc)  Key factor: Mean annual temperature higher in tropics (less seasonal variation) o Seasonal variation in RAIN  Most primates can’t tolerate cold temperatures  Only tropical habitats not occupied: deep desert  Fundamental concepts in ecology o Niche – ecological role of a species within a larger community or organism o Describes how a species’ lives in an ecosystem, including both 1 the range of conditions necessary for a species’ persistence and 2 the species impact on the environment o Descriptions are multidimensional: total range of environmental parameters that allows a species to survive  Description includes: diet, locomotion, activity pattern, predators, ranging patterns, etc  Variables called ‘Niche axes  Competitive exclusion principle o No 2 species that occupy the same niche can coexist over time o One species will eventually outcompete the other o Two different species cannot coexist indefinitely off the same limiting resource(s)  Major implication o If species are to coexist in the same habitat, they must differ in their niche in some way to avoid competition  Corollaries o Often strongest competitors are your closes phyletic relatives o The most intense competition for resources is usually intraspecific (members from your own species)  Niches can be overlapping when food is abundant, but tend to become discrete in times of food scarcity  Final Point: Imagine two species with similar niches living in the same habitat o One or both will shift niche to avoid competition o But – in areas where range doesn’t overlap, same species may be much more generalized in their niche o Ecological Release – niche expansion following the removal of constraining variable


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