Planet Earth Week 4 (With Lab Notes!)
Planet Earth Week 4 (With Lab Notes!) Geol 105
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Abi Sommers on Monday September 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Geol 105 at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months taught by John Platt in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views.
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Date Created: 09/19/16
Week 4 9/14 (&16) Lecture The Volcanic System Melt source Magma chamber Dikes and sills Central and side vents Surface accumulations : Lava Pyroclastic flows Ash Falls Lahars ( volcanic mudflows) Types of Extrusive Rock Lowviscosity magma ( basalt) : Pahoehoe Aa (blocky lava) Pillow lava ( ropey lava) Form from underwater lava flows, mainly basaltic High Viscosity magma (andesite rhyolite) Tuff (ash) Pyroclasitc Welded Tuff Rhyolitic texture Ash particles still partly molten and soft when deposited, so they become flattened and weld together Volcanic Breccia Eruptive Styles and Volcanic Landforms Fissure Eruptions Magma may be extruded from an elongate fissure, which forms a dike at depth Cinder conesfire fountaining Volcanic fissures with cinder cones in Iceland Flood basalts Flood Basalts of the Columbia River Shield volcanoes lava flows Shield Volcano on Mauna Loa (low viscosity basalt lava) Olympus Mons, Mars, Largest volcano in Solar System: 17 km high. Stratovolcanoes pyroclastic eruptions Fujiyama, Japan (high viscosity andesite lava) Volcanic domes viscous lava Mount Shasta, N. California Calderas Diatremes volcanic pipes Pyroclastic Ejecta Ash ( tephra) Tuff Bombs Breccia Pyroclastic flows Pyroclastic flows can be produced by a lateral blast from a side vent, or the collapse of a vertical ash cloud erupted from the central vent LAB Minerals : Naturally occurring Solid Fixed chemical composition Particular crystalline structure 7 useful properties to ID Minerals: Color Most visible and most deceiving property of a mineral Hardness Mohs scale of Hardness Diamond Corundum Topaz Quartz Feldspar Apatite Fluorite Calcite Cypsum Talc Luster How mineral’s surface reflects light Metallic Nonmetallic Streak Color of substance after it has been ground to a fine powder Very diagnostic, can help distinguish between very similar looking minerals i.e magnetite and hematite Crystal Form ( habit) Many possible habits Atomic structure is reflected at a scale you can see! Cleavage and fracture minerals break along flat cleavage lanes or curved fracture planes cleavage happens along planes of weakness fracture happens when there is no plane of weakness cleavage smooth, fracture rough Miscellaneous properties magnetic properties, reactive with HCI (avid)
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