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Planet Earth Week 4 (With Lab Notes!)

by: Abi Sommers

Planet Earth Week 4 (With Lab Notes!) Geol 105

Abi Sommers
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About this Document

Lectures from Week 4 of Planet Earth with lab notes
Planet Earth
John Platt
Class Notes
planet, EARTH, Geology, volcanoes, rocks




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Abi Sommers on Monday September 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Geol 105 at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months taught by John Platt in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views.


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Date Created: 09/19/16
Week 4   9/14 (&16) Lecture The Volcanic System ­ Melt source ­ Magma chamber ­ Dikes and sills ­ Central and side vents ­ Surface accumulations :  ­ Lava ­ Pyroclastic flows  ­ Ash Falls  ­ Lahars ( volcanic mudflows) Types of Extrusive Rock  ­ Low­viscosity magma ( basalt) :  ­ Pahoehoe ­ Aa  (blocky lava) ­ Pillow lava ( ropey lava) ­ Form from underwater lava flows, mainly basaltic ­ High­ Viscosity magma (andesite­ rhyolite) ­ Tuff (ash) ­ Pyroclasitc  ­ Welded Tuff ­ Rhyolitic texture ­ Ash particles still partly molten and soft when deposited, so they become  flattened and weld together ­ Volcanic Breccia Eruptive Styles and Volcanic Landforms ­ Fissure Eruptions ­  Magma may be extruded from an elongate fissure, which forms a dike at depth   ­ Cinder cones­fire fountaining ­ Volcanic fissures with cinder cones in Iceland ­ Flood basalts ­ Flood Basalts of the Columbia River ­ Shield volcanoes­ lava flows ­ Shield Volcano on Mauna Loa (low viscosity basalt lava) ­ Olympus Mons, Mars, Largest volcano in Solar System: 17 km high.        ­      Stratovolcanoes­ pyroclastic eruptions ­ Fujiyama, Japan (high viscosity andesite lava) ­ Volcanic domes­ viscous lava ­ Mount Shasta, N. California ­ Calderas  ­ Diatremes­ volcanic pipes Pyroclastic Ejecta ­ Ash ( tephra) ­ Tuff ­ Bombs  ­ Breccia ­ Pyroclastic flows ­ Pyroclastic flows can be produced by a lateral blast from a side vent, or the collapse of a vertical ash cloud erupted from the central vent  LAB  Minerals : ­  Naturally occurring  ­ Solid ­ Fixed chemical composition ­ Particular crystalline structure 7 useful properties to ID Minerals:  ­ Color ­ Most visible and most deceiving property of a mineral       ­  Hardness             ­    Mohs scale of Hardness ­ Diamond ­ Corundum ­ Topaz ­ Quartz ­ Feldspar   ­ Apatite ­ Fluorite ­ Calcite ­ Cypsum ­ Talc ­Luster ­ How mineral’s surface reflects light  ­ Metallic ­ Non­metallic ­ Streak  ­ Color of substance after it has been ground to a fine powder ­ Very diagnostic, can help distinguish between very similar looking  minerals i.e magnetite and hematite ­ Crystal Form ( habit)       ­     Many possible habits       ­     Atomic structure is reflected at a scale you can see! ­ Cleavage and fracture       ­    minerals break along flat cleavage lanes or curved fracture planes                   ­     cleavage happens along planes of weakness       ­    fracture happens when there is no plane of weakness                   ­   cleavage smooth, fracture rough          ­ Miscellaneous properties      ­    magnetic properties, reactive with HCI (avid)


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