Bio 3 Week 4 Farnsley Notes
Bio 3 Week 4 Farnsley Notes Biology 1130
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jasmine Nord on Monday September 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biology 1130 at University of Tennessee - Chattanooga taught by Farnsley in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Principles of Biology III in Biology at University of Tennessee - Chattanooga.
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Date Created: 09/19/16
Biology 3 Farnsley Week 9/12– 9/16 Chapter 9 1. In the electromagnetic spectrum, visible light only takes a small portion of the spectrum. This visible light spectrum is made up of photons. a. As energy increases; the wavelength decreases and vice versa b. One wavelength is from crest to crest or trough to trough 2. Photons are pockets of light energy in the visible light spectrum a. When these photons hit and are absorbed by electrons, the electrons get excited. This makes the electron jump to a higher energy level. b. Once it’s at a higher energy level, if an electron acceptor is near, the electron will go the electron acceptor i. 3. In plant cells, photosynthesis takes place in the chloroplast. a. Chloroplast is double membraned. The inner membrane is filled with a fluid called stroma. b. c. Those little disks inside the chloroplast are called Thylakoids. Each disk is one thylakoid. i. The space between the thylaoids is called the thylakoids space/membrane. Which is a fluid filled area (this is layer inside the stroma) 1. So in order its; outer membrane, inner membrane, and stroma THEN thylakoid space/membrane. ii. iii. The area inside the thylakoid is called the thylakoid lumen. 4. Now, chlorophyll is a pigment inside in the tylakoid that absorbs the light. a. Red and blue light is what is absorbed and green light is reflected (which is what we see) b. Chlorophyll is made of two parts a porphyrin ring and a hydrocarbon tail i. The porphyrin ring absorbs lights and participates in the reaction 5. Photosynthesis is reaction that is broken into 2 reactions. “Photo” is a light dependant reaction. While “synthesis” is a carbon fixation reaction. a. 6CO +2H O 2 H O + 66 12 6 2 6. Light dependant reaction (This happens in the thylakoid) a. Light breaks down H2O into oxygen, H+ and electrons i. Oxygen being one of the products ii. Light energy is converted into ATP and NADPH b. i. ADP is phosphorylated into ATP ii. NADP is reduced into NADPH 1. NADPH is an electron carrier which will give electrons during carbon fixation reaction iii. These electrons are put through an electron transport chain in the thylakoid membrane (the fluid outside the thylakoid) iv. This causes a proton gradient, pushing the protons inside the thylakoid lumen. These protons then have to go through an ATP synthase to go back to the stroma. Where they can be used to create ATP. 7. Carbon Fixation Reaction (Calvin Cycle) a. This reactions incorporates CO2 in organic molecules in a 3 stage process i. CO2 uptake 1. CO2 molecules are captured by a 5carbon RuBP (ribulose biphosphate) ii. Carbon reduction 1. ATP and NADPH reduce the CO2 into two, 3carbon G3P molecules 2. 1 G3P molecule leaves the cycle PER CYCLE iii. RuBP regeneration 1. That other G3P molecule that stayed in the cycle gets ATP added to it to create RuBP which is used to restart the cycle. b. You need 2 G3Ps to make one glucose molecule (which is one of the end product of all this madness) The whole reaction process (notice that some products are also reactants). Reactants Products Light dependent reactions light energy, pigments, NADPH, O2, ATP (chlorophyll) electrons, NADP, H2O, electron acceptors (ETC), proton gradient, ADP + P(protons), ATP synthase Carbon fixation reactions RuBP, CO2, ATP, NADPH carbohydrates, NADP, ADP 8. Photoautotrophs virtually produce all organic molecules that chemoheterotrophs use, like energy and carbon sources. a. Photoautotrophs produce there own food (plants) while chemoheterotrophs (humans, insects) cannot make there own food. They have to get it from somewhere else.
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