Prenatal Development #3377 Human Development 101
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caroline Smith on Monday September 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to #3377 Human Development 101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Scofield in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views.
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Date Created: 09/19/16
PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT Sex Cells o Ovum (i.e., egg) [Here is a short video to elaborate on this section: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vl2wRbO8LZU ] Female sex cell (i.e., gamete) Produced in ovaries [Ovaries alternate on which one releases an egg each cycle] 12 million (produced during prenatal development) 400,000 survive to puberty (released until menopause) Released every 28 days (i.e., menstrual cycle) Midcycle (i.e., 14 days before menstruation) Ovulation: when a mature egg is released from the ovary, pushed down the fallopian tube, and is made available to be fertilized. Estrogen and progesterone (hormones) prepare uterine lining Unfertilized eggs are shed with lining (menstruation) o Sperm Male sex cell (1.e., gamete) Produced in testicles 300400 million produced daily Production starts at puberty and occurs from then on. 4060% defective Released into urethra from testes Combine with seminal fluid Live 26 days Pass cervix and uterus 500 survive to reach egg Fertilization [Short video on fertilization: https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=vFfqLs94iHc] o Sperm travels through cervix into uterus searching for egg to fertilize. Note that the cervix is almost always closed. During ovulation is the best time for sperm to pass through the watery mucus. o The sperm are probing the egg to find the receptors on the egg that match up to allow fertilization. o In Vitro Fertilization (1978) "Test tube baby" Egg fertilized externally Treatment for infertility Egg implanted on uterus o Artificial Insemination ('80s) Sperm Donor (frozen then thawed) Treatment for infertility Sperm injected into cervix Pregnancy Test o Detects hormone that suppress menstrual cycle o Found in urine sample o 98% accurate Pregnancy o When sperm fertilizes ovum o Full Term (Gestation) 38 weeks (from conception) o Dated 40 weeks from last cycle o 3 trimesters (3 month periods) o 3 stages: Zygotic or Germinal (02 weeks) Embryonic (212 weeks) Fetal (1238 weeks) Prenatal Development [ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h82ltr84_Yg] o Zygotic Stage (02 weeks) [ https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=vFfqLs94iHc (Same video as Fertilization)] Zygote: fertilized egg Blastocyst: ball of cells Implants on uterus Umbilical Cord Nourishment Exchange waste, blood Placenta Filters substances o Embryonic Stage (212 weeks) [ Video on development from 48 weeks: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RAgWygmFuBs ; Video on development from 912 weeks: https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=O6SLOFNA50g] Embryo: implanted zygote Internal organs form. Heart beats (4 weeks) 1st missed cycle Appendages form . e.g., arms, legs Systems organize (12 weeks) e.g., nervous, circulatory o Fetal Stage (1240 weeks) 1st kick felt (18 weeks) Gender apparent (18 weeks) Senses respond (eyes, ears) Lanugo: hairlike cover Age of viability (28 weeks) Rotates (36 weeks) Teratogens o Definition: Toxins that harm the fetus (e.g., drugs) Aspirin, caffeine Low birth rate, low IQ, miscarriage, premature birth Cocaine, marijuana Withdrawal, attention, perception, failing organs Tobacco Heart and breathing problems, 12% of moms smoke Alcohol Mental retardation, underdeveloped brain, behavior problems e.g, Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Chemicals Lead, asbestos, pesticides, mercury Disease Measles, AIDS o Optimal Conditions Good nutrition Low stress Good health care Clean environment Birthing o Hormone changes Oxytocin: initiates contractions Prostogladins: softens cervix o Bloody show: dilating cervix releases small plug of mucus o Water breaks: amniotic membrane breaks releasing amniotic fluid Delivery within 24 hours (typically) Stages of Birthing (i.e. labor) o Stage 1: Dilation and effacement of cervix Uterine contractions 1236 hours 320 minutes long, 1560 seconds Dilation = widening Effacement = thinning Epidural: spinal anesthesia for numbing lower body Transition: most painful segment (1530 minutes) Contraction at peak intensity and frequency o Stage 2: Birth Pushing with abdomen Crowning Episiotomy: a surgical cut made at the opening of the vagina during childbirth, to aid a difficult delivery and prevent rupture of tissues. o Stage 3: Afterbirth Placenta birth Umbilical cord birthed Umbilical cord cut Cervical contractions Birthing Procedures o Lamaze: breathing and relaxation Coping with pain during unmedicated birth o Leboyer: birth without violence [This is thought to not make the transition for the baby from womb to outside world so hard.] No lights, noises, umbilical cord (helps breathe) o Other options for birth procedure: Varied body positions Midwives Homebirth Waterbirth Cesarean Section o Surgical delivery o Abdominal incision o When? Breech: head up, feet down Frank Breech Complete Breech Footling Breech Large head Previous csection o Cost? Expense, infection, stress Baby and Mommy o Baby Average weight and length: 7 lb. and 20 in. Umbilical cord cut. Head down. Face toward spine. o Mommy 2035 lbs Placenta = 2 lb. Blood = 4 lb. Breast = 2 lb. Uterus = 4 lb. Fat = 510 lb. APGAR Scorecard o Each category is scored on a scale from 0 to 2. Appearance (color) you want the baby to have pink / red and blotchy skin from the birth; bad signs blue skin Pulse (heart) looking for a pulse of 140160, anything under 100 is high risk Grimace (reflex) Looking for movement in the face Activity (muscle tone) Looking for movement in the body Respirations (breathing) Looking for a loud cry after the mucus is removed from the face. Scoring 710 (healthy) 46 (requires attention) 03 (high risk) Premature Birth o Born before 38 weeks o Low birth weight Under 5.5 lbs. o At risk for survival o At risk for delays
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