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Prenatal Development

by: Caroline Smith

Prenatal Development #3377 Human Development 101

Caroline Smith
GPA 3.0

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About this Document

These notes contain specifics on development from fertilization to birth. Link are in the notes (copy and paste).
Human Development through the Lifespan
Dr. Scofield
Class Notes
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caroline Smith on Monday September 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to #3377 Human Development 101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Scofield in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views.

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Date Created: 09/19/16
PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT  Sex Cells o Ovum (i.e., egg) [Here is a short video to elaborate on this  section: ]  Female sex cell (i.e., gamete)  Produced in ovaries [Ovaries alternate on which one releases  an egg each cycle]  1­2 million (produced during prenatal development)  400,000 survive to puberty (released until menopause)  Released every 28 days (i.e., menstrual cycle)  Mid­cycle (i.e., 14 days before menstruation)  Ovulation: when a mature egg is released from the  ovary, pushed down the fallopian tube, and is made  available to be fertilized.  Estrogen and progesterone (hormones) prepare uterine lining  Unfertilized eggs are shed with lining (menstruation) o Sperm  Male sex cell (1.e., gamete)  Produced in testicles  300­400 million produced daily  Production starts at puberty and occurs from then on.    40­60% defective  Released into urethra from testes  Combine with seminal fluid  Live 2­6 days  Pass cervix and uterus  500 survive to reach egg   Fertilization [Short video on fertilization: v=vFfqLs94iHc] o Sperm travels through cervix into uterus searching for egg to  fertilize.   Note that the cervix is almost always closed. During  ovulation is the best time for sperm to pass through the  watery mucus.  o The sperm are probing the egg to find the receptors on the egg that  match up to allow fertilization.  o In Vitro Fertilization (1978)  "Test tube baby"  Egg fertilized externally  Treatment for infertility  Egg implanted on uterus o Artificial Insemination ('80s)  Sperm Donor (frozen then thawed)  Treatment for infertility  Sperm injected into cervix   Pregnancy Test o Detects hormone that suppress menstrual cycle o Found in urine sample o 98% accurate  Pregnancy o When sperm fertilizes ovum o Full Term (Gestation) 38 weeks (from conception) o Dated 40 weeks from last cycle  o 3 trimesters (3 month periods) o 3 stages:  Zygotic or Germinal (0­2 weeks)  Embryonic (2­12 weeks)  Fetal (12­38 weeks)  Prenatal Development [] o Zygotic Stage (0­2 weeks) [ v=vFfqLs94iHc (Same video as Fertilization)]  Zygote: fertilized egg  Blastocyst: ball of cells  Implants on uterus  Umbilical Cord  Nourishment  Exchange waste, blood  Placenta  Filters substances o Embryonic Stage (2­12 weeks) [ Video on development from 4­8  weeks: ; Video on  development from 9­12 weeks: v=O6SLOFNA50g]  Embryo: implanted zygote  Internal organs form.  Heart beats (4 weeks)  1st missed cycle  Appendages form .  e.g., arms, legs  Systems organize (12 weeks)  e.g., nervous, circulatory o Fetal Stage (12­40 weeks)  1st kick felt (18 weeks)  Gender apparent (18 weeks)  Senses respond (eyes, ears)  Lanugo: hair­like cover  Age of viability (28 weeks)  Rotates (36 weeks)  Teratogens o Definition: Toxins that harm the fetus (e.g., drugs)  Aspirin, caffeine  Low birth rate, low IQ, miscarriage, premature birth  Cocaine, marijuana  Withdrawal, attention, perception, failing organs   Tobacco  Heart and breathing problems, 12% of moms smoke  Alcohol  Mental retardation, underdeveloped brain, behavior  problems  e.g, Fetal Alcohol Syndrome  Chemicals  Lead, asbestos, pesticides, mercury  Disease  Measles, AIDS o Optimal Conditions  Good nutrition  Low stress  Good health care  Clean environment  Birthing o Hormone changes  Oxytocin: initiates contractions  Prostogladins: softens cervix o Bloody show: dilating cervix releases small plug of mucus o Water breaks: amniotic membrane breaks releasing amniotic fluid  Delivery within 24 hours (typically)  Stages of Birthing (i.e. labor) o Stage 1: Dilation and effacement of cervix   Uterine contractions   12­36 hours  3­20 minutes long, 15­60 seconds  Dilation = widening  Effacement = thinning  Epidural: spinal anesthesia for numbing lower body  Transition: most painful segment (15­30 minutes)  Contraction at peak intensity and frequency  o Stage 2: Birth  Pushing with abdomen  Crowning  Episiotomy: a surgical cut made at the opening of the vagina  during childbirth, to aid a difficult delivery and prevent  rupture of tissues. o Stage 3: Afterbirth  Placenta birth  Umbilical cord birthed  Umbilical cord cut  Cervical contractions  Birthing Procedures o Lamaze: breathing and relaxation  Coping with pain during unmedicated birth o Leboyer: birth without violence [This is thought to not make the  transition for the baby from womb to outside world so hard.]  No lights, noises, umbilical cord (helps breathe) o Other options for birth procedure:   Varied body positions  Midwives  Home­birth  Water­birth  Cesarean Section o Surgical delivery o Abdominal incision o When?  Breech: head up, feet down  Frank Breech  Complete Breech  Footling Breech  Large head  Previous c­section o Cost?  Expense, infection, stress   Baby and Mommy o Baby  Average weight and length: 7 lb. and 20 in.   Umbilical cord cut.  Head down.  Face toward spine. o Mommy  20­35 lbs  Placenta = 2 lb.  Blood = 4 lb.  Breast = 2 lb.   Uterus = 4 lb.  Fat = 5­10 lb.  APGAR Scorecard o Each category is scored on a scale from 0 to 2.   Appearance (color) ­ you want the baby to have pink / red  and blotchy skin from the birth; bad signs ­ blue skin  Pulse (heart) ­ looking for a pulse of 140­160, anything under 100 is high risk  Grimace (reflex) ­ Looking for movement in the face  Activity (muscle tone) ­ Looking for movement in the body  Respirations (breathing) ­ Looking for a loud cry after the  mucus is removed from the face.      Scoring  7­10 (healthy)  4­6 (requires attention)  0­3 (high risk)  Premature Birth o Born before 38 weeks o Low birth weight  Under 5.5 lbs. o At risk for survival o At risk for delays 


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