Geog 204 Week 4 Notes
Geog 204 Week 4 Notes GEOG 204
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Michelle Pope on Monday September 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEOG 204 at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign taught by Chen, ZCidell, J in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Cities of the World in Geography at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
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Date Created: 09/19/16
South America II Monday, September 12, 2016 11:59 AM In Class Activity Megacities and Spectacles Question: How do these three cities illustrate different facets of Brazil? 1. Megacities a. Metropolitan area over 10 million b. Megacity housing 1 of every 20 people c. Likely to mean unbalanced growth i. Attracting people from other cities in the country 2. World cities a. Not ranked by size, but economic importance b. Command and control centers i. Where economic decisions are made that affect world economy c. New York, London, Tokyo d. Alpha, beta, gamma levels 3. Sao Paolo a. Megacity b. Plateau high above the coast c. The New York of Brazil i. Financial center ii. Culturally diverse iii. Most Japanese outside of Japan and Italian outside of Italy d. Founded in 1554 as a Jesuit mission e. Coffee in 1800s-> growth i. City started to grow when coffee was starting to plant f. Main industrial center in 1920s; today, more service sector g. Highly stratified housing, transportation i. Metro vs bus 1) Metro is more expensive than the bus 2) Poorer people on the bus ii. Helicopters (largest private helicopter fleet) 1) Faster to use when traffic is bad h. Multiple centers, no overall structure i. "Lei Cidade Limpa" or "Clean City Law" in 2007: no outdoor advertising ii. Helicopters (largest private helicopter fleet) 1) Faster to use when traffic is bad h. Multiple centers, no overall structure i. "Lei Cidade Limpa" or "Clean City Law" in 2007: no outdoor advertising Clicker Question: How is Sao Paolo unlike most towns the Portuguese founded in Brazil Answer: It isn't on the coast 4. Urban Spectacles a. International, "World -class" event i. Draws everyone's attentions ii. EX: Olympics, World Cup, Worlds Fairs iii. Draws people from everywhere in the world iv. One Olympics in the last 60 years has had a net money income b. Makes the city more visible c. Requires new infrastructure i. New stadiums/ athletic housing d. Significant opportunity cost i. Finite amount of resources 5. Rio de Janeiro a. Excellent site and situation b. Los Angeles of Brazil i. Cultural capital 1) Movies, music, entertainment ii. Major tourist destination 1) "fun" city c. Founded in 1565 as trade city d. Was the capital for 200 years e. Strong racial/class and geographic division i. South: white, wealthy, beaches ii. North: non-white, poor, industry, favelas (African or indigenous) f. Crime and pacification g. New form of transport: cable cars (more like ski lift) i. Increased access for some ii. But other become sights to see Clicker Question: How are the favelas of Rio marginalized in the location? Answer: on steep ground 6. Planned cities a. Not a long history b. New cities designed from scratch i. National capitals 1) IE Washington DC ii. To draw activity (growth pole) 1) Spatially rebalance the country 2) Unbalanced in Brazil b. New cities designed from scratch i. National capitals 1) IE Washington DC ii. To draw activity (growth pole) 1) Spatially rebalance the country 2) Unbalanced in Brazil 3) Everyone on the coast, especially the south c. Often conflict between design and livability d. Hard to force economic activity to move 7. Brasilia a. Founded in 1960 to populate Brazil's interior b. Plan designer: Lucio Costa (Brazilian) c. Building designer: Oscar Niemeyer (Brazilian) i. Planned to look like a plane on the ground ii. Tried to build a city that looks futuristic d. Said to be failed city i. Depends on who you ask e. Car-dependent; expensive center; empty on weekends f. No colonial baggage; some character; globally praised South America III Wednesday, September 14, 2016 12:20 PM The Andes 1. Earthquake basics a. Stress relief via crust movement b. Taffy-like rock flows, hard rock near surface breaks c. 500,000 quakes per year; 800 felt d. Biggest quakes: Pacific Rim (subduction) e. Experienced the largest and 6th largest in Chile f. Subduction zones are where the worst earthquakes happen 2. Earthquake effects a. "Earthquakes don’t kill people, buildings do" b. Broken gas mains-> fires i. In SF, water pipes broke as well c. Liquefaction d. Critical infrastructure (highways) e. Landslides as a result of earthquakes f. Tsunamis as a result of earthquakes 3. Chilean earthquakes a. World's largest (9.5 in 1960), 6th largest (8.8 in 2010) and 8.5 in 2015 b. Relatively few deaths c. Less deaths in Chilean earthquakes than other countries in the world i. Why not disastrous 1) Offshore 2) People are used to it 3) Strong, enforced building codes 4) Drills and training d. Damage and death tolls very low MIDTERM NEXT FRIDAY Middle East I Friday, September 16, 2016 11:58 AM Water and Oil Question: How do physical, economic, and cultural geography combine to describe a region? Video: My City: Beirut Clicker Question: What's the Urban Triangle of the Greater Middle East? Answer: Cairo, Istanbul, Tehran 1. Greater Middle East a. Hard to find whole region b. Where cities began c. 27 countries, 60% urban i. Country to country 30% to 95% urban d. Megacities: Cairo, Istanbul, Tehran (Urban Triangle) i. Heart of the Middle East e. "Hinge cities": in between the Middle East and Europe; connects Europe to Asia f. Cultural capitals 2. Defining the region: physical geography a. Mostly arid or semi-arid i. Very dry, doesn’t rain a lot b. Hydraulic civilization theory i. Control water, control territory 1) Because water is so limited ii. Cities developed for irrigation 1) Developed these for crops 2) People worked together to survive c. Site = water source (very important) d. Land, no maritime, transportation i. Less emphasis of getting around by ship e. Mountains=less urbanized Clicker Question: What do Hadley cells help explain about the Greater Middle East? Answer: why so much of the area is a desert Hadley cell: air rising from the equator and sinking down Population fairly dense around Nile river East? Answer: why so much of the area is a desert Hadley cell: air rising from the equator and sinking down Population fairly dense around Nile river 3. Ancient cities a. Crossroads, water sources i. Jericho (9000 BC) 1) Oldest city that still has people living there ii. Catalhoyuk (6000 BC) iii. Memphis (3000 BC) b. Cooperation on irrigation, defense (to build wall around city) i. Ur (5000 BC) 1) In 2000 BC about the size of Urbana now 2) Largest city in the world at that time c. Interdependence of city and country 4. Physical geography and cities (consequences) a. Densely built i. Maximize space b. Strong fortifications i. City walls c. Courtyards, narrow streets i. Helped with shade d. High, thick building walls e. Wells, fountains Clicker Question: How would you expect urban life to be different in the Greater Middle East from Middle and South America? Answer: no central plaza means less public space 5. Defining the region: economic geography a. Historic trading centers b. Situation = crossroads c. Growth based on relative location d. Mediterranean, Silk Road, Sahara i. Series of different kinds of routes e. Suez Canal, Persian Gulf i. Long distance transport 6. Economic geography and cities (implications) a. Long dependent on global forces b. No large scale industry c. Artisan manufacturing d. Marketplace at city core i. Some social and economic interaction e. Oil = urbanization i. Growth because of oil b. No large scale industry c. Artisan manufacturing d. Marketplace at city core i. Some social and economic interaction e. Oil = urbanization i. Growth because of oil ii. Trying to develop in other kinds of ways 7. Defining the region: cultural geography a. 3 of 4 largest language families b. Influence of Islam (dominant cultural influence) i. Five pillars ii. Diffusion across region iii. City structure, features c. Significant minority groups i. Armenians, Christians, and Jews Clicker Question: Which of the following is not one of the Five Pillars of (Sunni) Islam? Answer: learn Arabic to read the original Koran 8. Cultural geography and cities (implications) a. Sacred cities: Mecca, Medina, Jerusalem i. Mudammad's birthplace, first converts, ascent to Heaven b. Mosques for community gathering, worship i. Mihrab (niche in the wall) points to Mecca ii. Minaret: tower to call to prayer 1) 5 times a day c. Historically, quarters or neighborhoods by ethnicity d. Public-private gender divide i. Privacy for women ii. Clothing, architecture, public space 9. In conclusion a. Great diversity in urbanization across region b. Long history of global interdependence c. Islamic influence, cultural diversity d. Cities structured by era
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