PSY 321 Chapter 5 Day 3
PSY 321 Chapter 5 Day 3 Psy 321
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Stephanie on Monday September 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psy 321 at University of Mississippi taught by Carrie Smith in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychology at University of Mississippi.
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Date Created: 09/19/16
PSY 321: Social Psychology Chapter 5: The Self (Day 3) I. Maintaining Self Esteem a. Two Processes i. Reflection ii. Strategic Social Comparison 1. Downward Social Comparison a. Comparing yourself to someone who is worse off than you i. Makes us feel better about ourselves ii. It boosts selfesteem 2. Upward Social Comparison a. Comparing ourselves to people who are better off than we are i. It might motivate you to do better ii. It is detrimental to selfesteem b. We can maintain our selfesteem by manipulating our social comparison i. We have choices about who we hang out with ii. If it is a skill/trait we care about/ key to our self concept…Downward Social Comparison iii. If it is a skill/trait we do not care about/ not key to our selfconcept…Upward Social Comparison c. Research i. Tesser, Campbell, and Smith (1984) – Who are our friends? th th 1. They looked at 5 and 6 graders a. They asked the students to tell what their favorite subject was, who was their best friend, and what was their friend’s favorite subject i. If a student liked athletics then their best friend was bad at athletics ii. If a student was bad at something then their best friend was good at it d. SelfHandicapping i. This happens when our success is uncertain 1. We create obstacles for ourselves that increase our likelihood of failure 2. This gives us a readymade attribution for failure that maintains selfesteem 3. It perpetuates your failure 4. Berglas & Jones (1978) a. Told people that they were going to either pass or fail an exam b. They were present with two substances. One would increase performance while the other would decrease it c. Most people would take the substances that decreased their performance II. Considering Self Esteem a. Why does selfesteem even matter? i. We spend a lot of time and effort to maintain selfesteem ii. Selfesteem tells us about how other people see us (at least a little) 1. Sociometer Theory (Leary) a. Selfesteem can act like a gas gauge b. Selfesteem is kind of like gas because it keeps us going and engaged c. Helps us persist in the face of failure b. Okay, so high selfesteem is better? i. What we know about low selfesteem 1. Low selfesteem is not good a. People with low selfesteem have lower life satisfaction b. They feel more hopeless c. They are less able to deal with stressors d. They engage in more antisocial behavior ii. But… 1. Stability of selfesteem a. Do you feel like a good person consistently? b. This stability is good for you 2. Instability of selfesteem a. We do not feel good about ourselves consistently 3. Trying to keep a high selfesteem can be tiring 4. Secure v. Insecure selfesteem (Crocker & Colleagues) a. Secure selfesteem: Feeling good about who you are because of who you are b. Insecure selfesteem: When you feel good about yourself because of external validation i. They experience more anger, more stress, more relationship problems, more drug abuse, and more eating disorders ii. They almost lose intrinsic motivation about things III. Narcissism a. What is it? i. It is a pervasive pattern of grandiosity, need for admiration, and an exaggerated sense of selfimportance 1. It may be fostered by high selfesteem 2. They believe that they are superior to other people 3. The term comes from the Greek story of Narcissus who fell in love with his own reflection and drowned 4. They tend to lack empathy 5. They need reassurance and need you to know how great they are 6. There is no basis for narcissism 7. There is a lot of pressure on them to be seen as the best a. Many believe that underneath that is a strong feeling of inadequacy IV. Considering Self Esteem a. Is high selfesteem a good thing? i. It depends 1. High and stable selfesteem is good 2. High and unstable selfesteem is bad ii. You need to have a stable selfesteem that is based on who you are and is sustainable b. DeWall et al (2011) – Do you sing different songs? i. They looked at songs over three decades 1. We see words like I, me, and my in more songs today 2. Songs with we or us have gone down 3. Songs will social processes are not sung at all anymore 4. Songs with antisocial lyrics have gone up significantly
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