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PSY 321 Chapter 5 Day 3

by: Stephanie

PSY 321 Chapter 5 Day 3 Psy 321

Marketplace > University of Mississippi > Psychology > Psy 321 > PSY 321 Chapter 5 Day 3
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About this Document

These notes cover the last part of Chapter 5, focusing mainly on self-esteem.
Social Psychology
Carrie Smith
Class Notes
PSY321, social, Psychology, Lecture Notes, Self-Esteem
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Stephanie on Monday September 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psy 321 at University of Mississippi taught by Carrie Smith in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychology at University of Mississippi.


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Date Created: 09/19/16
PSY 321:  Social Psychology Chapter 5:  The Self (Day 3) I. Maintaining Self Esteem a. Two Processes i. Reflection ii. Strategic Social Comparison  1. Downward Social Comparison a. Comparing yourself to someone who is worse off than you i. Makes us feel better about ourselves ii. It boosts self­esteem 2. Upward Social Comparison a. Comparing ourselves to people who are better off than we  are i. It might motivate you to do better ii. It is detrimental to self­esteem  b. We can maintain our self­esteem by manipulating our  social comparison i. We have choices about who we hang out with ii. If it is a skill/trait we care about/ key to our self­ concept…Downward Social Comparison iii. If it is a skill/trait we do not care about/ not key to  our self­concept…Upward Social Comparison c. Research i. Tesser, Campbell, and Smith (1984) – Who are our  friends?   th th 1. They looked at 5  and 6  graders a. They asked the students to tell what  their favorite subject was, who was  their best friend, and what was their  friend’s favorite subject i. If a student liked athletics  then their best friend was bad at athletics ii. If a student was bad at  something then their best  friend was good at it d. Self­Handicapping i. This happens when our success is uncertain 1. We create obstacles for ourselves that  increase our likelihood of failure 2. This gives us a ready­made attribution for  failure that maintains self­esteem 3. It perpetuates your failure 4. Berglas & Jones (1978) a. Told people that they were going to  either pass or fail an exam b. They were present with two  substances.  One would increase  performance while the other would  decrease it c. Most people would take the  substances that decreased their  performance  II. Considering Self Esteem a. Why does self­esteem even matter? i. We spend a lot of time and effort to maintain self­esteem ii. Self­esteem tells us about how other people see us (at least a little) 1. Sociometer Theory (Leary) a. Self­esteem can act like a gas gauge b. Self­esteem is kind of like gas because it keeps us going  and engaged c. Helps us persist in the face of failure b. Okay, so high self­esteem is better? i. What we know about low self­esteem 1. Low self­esteem is not good a. People with low self­esteem have lower life satisfaction b. They feel more hopeless c. They are less able to deal with stressors d. They engage in more antisocial behavior ii. But… 1. Stability of self­esteem a. Do you feel like a good person consistently? b. This stability is good for you 2. Instability of self­esteem a. We do not feel good about ourselves consistently 3. Trying to keep a high self­esteem can be tiring 4. Secure v. Insecure self­esteem (Crocker & Colleagues) a. Secure self­esteem:  Feeling good about who you are  because of who you are b. Insecure self­esteem:  When you feel good about yourself  because of external validation  i. They experience more anger, more stress, more  relationship problems, more drug abuse, and more  eating disorders ii. They almost lose intrinsic motivation about things III. Narcissism  a. What is it? i. It is a pervasive pattern of grandiosity, need for admiration, and an  exaggerated sense of self­importance 1. It may be fostered by high self­esteem 2. They believe that they are superior to other people 3. The term comes from the Greek story of Narcissus who fell in love with his own reflection and drowned 4. They tend to lack empathy 5. They need reassurance and need you to know how great they are 6. There is no basis for narcissism 7. There is a lot of pressure on them to be seen as the best a. Many believe that underneath that is a strong feeling of  inadequacy  IV. Considering Self Esteem a. Is high self­esteem a good thing? i. It depends 1. High and stable self­esteem is good 2. High and unstable self­esteem is bad  ii. You need to have a stable self­esteem that is based on who you are and is  sustainable b. DeWall et al (2011) – Do you sing different songs? i. They looked at songs over three decades 1. We see words like I, me, and my in more songs today 2. Songs with we or us have gone down 3. Songs will social processes are not sung at all anymore 4. Songs with antisocial lyrics have gone up significantly


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