Intro to Neuroscience Week 2
Intro to Neuroscience Week 2 NE 101
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Noemie Trocher on Monday September 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to NE 101 at Boston University taught by Lipton in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Neuroscience in Neuroscience at Boston University.
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Date Created: 09/19/16
Intro to Neuroscience September 12, 2016 Roots of Neuroscience (cont.) - Cognition: How are psychological processes supported by the brain? ● Edward Tolman (1946): Latent Learning ○ Trained groups of animals in a maze ○ Recorded how many times an animal made an error while trying to solve maze ■ Group A: received no reward for completing maze ■ Group B: received a reward after every trial ■ Group C: were not rewarded until Day 11 ■ Group C indicates that animals were actually learning ● Just wandering around mze but still learning ● Disproves theory that learning is a reflex ○ Insight in detours: ■ Pioneered cognitive revolution -> put cognition on the map ■ In different maze, animals had to figure out how to get to the food box through various detours ■ Animals eventually learned how to take a detour if a specific blockage was used ● Donald Hebb (1949) ○ Contributed to cell assembly -> figured out how cells ar connected ○ Discovered phase sequence ■ A: Friend 1 ■ B: Friend 1’s dorm; Friend 2’s dorm ■ C: Friend 2 ■ Brain is able to determine that both Friend 1 and Friend 2 live in the same dorm, WITHOUT ever seeing them together ● Way beyond the reflex arc ● Modern neuroscience seeks circuits that supports higher cognitive functions -> there are actual regions of the brain ○ Inferential judgment - Compartmentalization: How the brain is organized ● Franz Joseph Gall (1800): ○ Organology:as you get better at something -> certain parts of the brain grow -> create bumps in the skull (totally incorrect) ○ Laid foundation for compartmentalization ● Paul Broca (1861): ○ Patient named “TAN”: cannot speak but can comprehend very well ○ When Broca did an autopsy on him, found that there was a whole in the left frontal part of the brain -> came to be known as Broca’s area ● Carl Wernicke (1866): ○ Had a patient who could speak fluently but could not comprehend others ○ Different part of the brain was affected ● Broca and Wernicke both laid foundation for the localization of speech in the brain ● Gustav and Julius (1870) ○ Discovered areas that correlate with sensations and movement on the body ○ Applied electric current to specific parts of the brain ○ Were able to create a motor and sensory map of the brain ■ The more sensitivity a part of the body has -> the larger representation it has in the brain ● Modern Organology ○ Have identified 30+ areas of the brain - Cure: The Future ● Brain initiative ○ Accelerate the development and application of new technology that will enable people to produce pictures ■ Influence local networks through TMS ■ Use molecular tools to manipulate activity ■ Mapping brain using brain-bow Evolution of the Nervous System - Intellectual traditions in neuroscience: ● Psychology ● Chemistry ● Physics ● Biology -> organismal biology: the studying of small animals to understand humans - Insight learning in crows: ● Crow must get food in a basket from a clear glass tube using a wire ● Crow was able to get the basket of food by bending the wire to make a hook - Delayed matching sample: Comparison stimuli ● Animal is trained so that when it is shown a color to pick that color ->will open a door to food ● Animal was able to do it with different colors, patterns, and odors ● *Animal was a honeybee -> can learn abstract concepts - Invertebrates dominate tropical animal biomass September 14, 2016 Why Study Evolutionary Neuroscience? - Why discuss evolution in NE101? ● “Nothing in Biology makes sense except in the light of evolution.” -TheodosiusDobzhansky ● Causation: ○ Why is it designed this way? - Ultimate question (Why?) ■ Focus on historical explanation (evolutionary) ○ How does it work? - Proximate question (How?) ■ Focus on how things function Basic Concepts - What is evolution? ● Descent of modification ● Change in population NOT individuals ● Frequency of heritable genetics varies in population over generations - Critical terms ● Population: species/ groups of similar animals ● Variants: change in population; tool of change ● Heritability: means by which variation occurs - Natural Selection ● How do organisms evolve phenotypes that fit their environment ○ Differential survival based on heritable variation = FITNESS ● Is not the evolutionary process ○ Mutation: ultimate source of all change ○ Genetic drift: random change in allele frequency due to chance ○ Gene flow: movement among population ○ Fitness: only process that relates to adaptation and environment ● Evolution ○ Change in allele frequencies in a population over time ○ Does not mean better ● Speciation ○ When a species in different environments begin to differ so much that they can no longer mate ● Phylogenies ○ Relationship among lineages can be described using tree diagram September 16, 2016 Case Studies: Levels of Causation Animal Eyes - How do camera eyes work? ● Image focused on retina activating photoreceptors ● Info transmitted along optic nerve to visual processing part of brain BUT: Why so many different types of eyes? What is adaptive about eyes? - Why do camera eyes work the way they do? ● Vertebrate: cells that capture info are all the way in the back ● Cephalopod: cells that capture info are in front -Evolution: any change in allele frequency in a population over time ● Mutation ● Genetic drift ● Gene flow ● Natural selection - Natural Selection ● Adaptations of nervous system are just like other phenotypic traits ● Often subdivided ○ Interaction with environment ■ Ability to find food ■ Ability to avoid predators ■ Tolerances to extreme environmental conditions -> Called Ecological Selection ○ Ability to find a mate ■ Competition between animals of the same sex ■ Ability to attract a mate -> Called Sexual Selection ● Ecological Selection ○ Adaptations to environment ■ Food ■ Weather ■ Predator -> Lead to somatosensory/motor specializations ○ Ex: adaptation to fossorial lifestyle ■ Morphology: body shape, digging adaptation ■ Neurobiology: reduced investment in vision and audition -> greater investment in forward somatosensation Convergent vs Contingent Evolution - Phenotypic similarities are due to convergent evolution NOT ancestral traits - Repeatable vs. Chance Events ● Convergence leads to similar, NOT identical, situations ● Natural selection is anything but random ○ Mutation = chance ○ Genetic drift = chance ● Sexual selection ○ Adaptation to acquire mates ■ Competition (intrasexual) ■ Advertising (intersexual) ○ Ex: songbirds ■ Morphology and Behavior: brightly colored feathers, elaborate songs ■ Neurobiology: ability to learn songs heard early in development, dedicated neural circuits for song production, increased investment in vocalization areas of brain
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