Western Civ Week 3 Notes
Western Civ Week 3 Notes History 2320-001
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Maricela Castro on Monday September 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 2320-001 at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months taught by Bryan S. Glass in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see Western Civilization to Date in History at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months.
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Date Created: 09/19/16
HIST 2320.001 WESTERN CIVILIZATION 1715 TO PRESENT WEEK 3 9/12 Ø Recap: talked about o Scientific Revolution § Newton § Boyle § Harvey found out Parr was actually in his 90’s. o Protestantism—Major factor behind blossoming the scientific revolution § Why was Protestantism important? Undermining the Catholic church. § Why is the most important question! § Royal society (1662) would fund any scientist that put forward any experiment they wanted to do no matter who it was and they don’t make you tell them your results; you won’t be judged upon your results. § When you are the church of England you’re much smaller than the Catholic Church. § Because of power of catholic church, will have more negative impact § Absolutist, protest movement o Talked about Gutenberg’s rapid spread of knowledge with his discovery of the printing press. The information of sciences to non-scientists alike around the world in a quick matter at that time. o Deism, God created a perfect world, and his entity left. Look to nature!!! Ø Intellectual Consequences of the Scientific Revolution Ø Public Sphere o What is it? Information is spread through the public like clubs, coffee houses. § Coffee houses use to be for discussion, not on your computer and zoning out like today. o If you were in England in the 1700, about 10% men could read and write. o How about the American colonies could read and write? 75% men, 33-50% women (rural-urban). § How is there a higher percent of literacy in the American colonies? Sheer determination. “You can do better for yourself if you read and write.” § If women couldn’t read in the American colonies, they knew how to recognize numbers, they were the one taking care of the books. § In Europe, heavily aristocratic dominated society. § One man in Scotland today Duke of Buccleuch owns 20% of the land. Aristocthcy is still strong in Europe. Ø Battle of the Books 18 century o Intellectual debate between 2 groups: Ancients v. Moderns. o Arguing over who is superior. o The Ancients believe in classical ways of thinking. HIST 2320.001 WESTERN CIVILIZATION 1715 TO PRESENT WEEK 3 § The Greeks, the romans, classical antiquity, and the work out of it— Aristotle, Plato etc. § The classical authors had more wisdom than natural philosophers (name for scientists). o The Moderns § Natural philosophers (scientists) § Standing on the shoulders of giants. o Battle of books were books published by different authors, classical authors superior and others are saying natural philosophers are right. Ø Creation of new grouping of intellectual discipline known as the social sciences. o Political science, sociology, anthropology, psychology o Dedicated to study: culture, investigate human behavior through theories. Trying to apply the natural science theories to predict/explain human behavior. Ø Humanities o History, philosophy, English, study of literature Ø Deductive reasoning § Explanation § Sociologists are obsessed with this one. Ø Inductive reasoning § No theories ahead of time, theories come later once all the investigations are done. § Ex. Go out with no preconceived ideas on findings, but go out into the wilderness and do the e § Do the work, collect the data, then theory or explain § Humanities th Ø Skepticism also arose in the 18 century o René Descartes, “always be skeptical.” Just don’t take anything as the truth until you find out yourself. § Overuse of deductive reasoning § French philosopher o By being skeptical, by not taking what someone says the last thing to you as true, protects you more from false information, being led astray, enhances your ability to be independent and have independent thought, not falling in the line. o Descartes even doubted his own existence o In doubting his own existence, he knew he existed. “I think therefore I know I am.” o The importance of thinking for yourself, not letting others tell you what you think. § To be intellectually inquisitive. o Healthy according to Descartes. o He had loyal followers that believed everything he did. § Baruch Spinoza (1632-1677), said you had to be skeptical about everything until it was proven on good and solid reason, (evidence). § Believed in free thinking, thinking for yourself. § To be a true free thinker you must go out and take in as much information as you can before making an informed decision. Have to put nonsense away from all sides, to make your informed decision. HIST 2320.001 WESTERN CIVILIZATION 1715 TO PRESENT WEEK 3 § Said that God & nature were one and the same, could both be understood in mathematical terms. § Spinoza’s thoughts on God and nature is precursor to deism! 9/14 Ø Fontenelle (1699) o The application form science to nature would allow man to fly one day even as far as the moon. Ø Optimism from science Ø Scientific revolution led to advances from reproduction, contribution of male and female equally. Ø Descartes stated there was no difference between the minds of men and women o “The mind has no sex” o when he gives this quote, does he mean that men and women are interested in exactly the same thing? NO, there’s overlap of course, not true all the time. o What is he getting at? He’s saying that men and women can be equally intelligent. Ø Scientific Revolution in the West knew very little Eastern influences. The East had begun to decline in intellectual vigor. Ø Belief is the West is bether than everything else, this encourages western imperialism. Ø At the beginning of 18 Century there’s a war that breaks out. o War of Spanish Succession 1701-1714 o War doesn’t officially end until there’s a treaty signed that the war is over. o Louis XIV-France, everyone is against King Louis o Those against Louis is everyone and England-William of Orange § William invaded England at 1688-89 from Amsterdam, he is from the Netherlands. He’s a prince in the Netherlands. William had already fought wars against Louis XIV, he already made a resolution to defeat them. He despised Louis because he was always trying to conquer Netherlands for Catholicism. Louis doesn’t like that they were Protestant. § Louis XIV was called the sun king, because he saw himself as the best king of all, center of the universe. o Louis wanted to put his grandson on the throne of Spain. § What is he going to get out of this? Louis wants the Spanish empire for himself. o Louis had designs on being the dominant king of the world. o William says no, and the war breaks up o March 1702, William’s horse steps into a mole hole, throws him off, William breaks his collar bone, gets infected and dies within a month. He dies early on in the war. § Succeeded by Queen Anne, also known as Queen Anne’s war § Puts it in the most trusted Duke of Marlborough (John Churchill) § Widely considered at the time as the best soldier in the world. § John Churchill • Extremely bred • Put in charge of the war effort • Wins staggering victories over the French • Most famous of these battles is the Battle of Blenheim HIST 2320.001 WESTERN CIVILIZATION 1715 TO PRESENT WEEK 3 • Queen Anne, as a gift John, builds him Palace Blenheim • Once he wins this battle there’s no doubt he will win, he would hunt them down and force them into battle and slaughter them. • He keeps trying to hunt Louis down and Louis says he wants peace and he says no it’s not over until you’re over. • Because they didn’t want to spend any more money on the war, they removed John Churchill from the British Parliament and made peace. § Anne fails to have an heir. She was pregnant 18 times and no child survives, one may have been born then died soon after. When she dies the crown passes to the House of Hanover (Germans) George I. Ø George I becomes King of England and doesn’t know any English. Ø Rise of the British Empire o Start with the early colonies. o Jamestown 1607, pilgrims, Puritans in the northeast. o Most of the people that come to colonial North America are from the British Isles because of: § Religious freedom § Economic opportunity § These are driven people, they want a better life and are willing to risk their lives to get it § When you look at early America this is why you have such high extreme literacy rates, people that have always been driven. § Literacy leads to more success. § What colonies did Catholics from Britain go to? Maryland § Safe place for Catholics is Maryland o East India Company is given a charter, sets up trading posts called factories all around the Indian subcontinent § Surat-1612 § Madras-1640 § Bombay-1661 § Calcutta-1690 • These are traders trading with the powerful empire already in place of India, called the Mughal Empire. § No control, no settlement, no bricks leaving Britain and settling there, just employees of East India company and staying there. § Began encouraging their employees (servants), to marry the Indian woman for love and produce Indian children. • Known as Affective Knowledge Gathering—if you have affection for someone, you are going to want to learn all about who they are. Culture, language. You’ll be driven to learn this because you love them and by learning their language, culture, and traditions, you have information for the company. You can tell the company about their culture and religious practices. The children are the perfect in between cultures they will speak both languages fluently. They will feel loyalty to the dominant culture, culture of their father’s. HIST 2320.001 WESTERN CIVILIZATION 1715 TO PRESENT WEEK 3 • Wanted to create “Brown Englishmen” • Encouraging this in exchange for information. Becomes useful for the East Indian Company. Ø French were also look to expand overseas. o Had a different way of viewing empire. o French forbid French citizens to leave and settle as another country. o They said you can go out and leave to trade but you must always come home. o Relationship between French and Indians in North America was great. o France and Spain can never be combined is still in effect today. o France doesn’t want to be weakened at home with people leaving and settling. o Loss of 7 Years War will lead France to transfer Canada and all territory east of Mississippi river to Britain, which will eventually lead to the Louisiana Purchase for $15 million, greatest land deal in history. Ø J Thank you for reading! PLEASE CONTACT ME IF THERE’S ANY ERRORS OR MISSING POINTS I’D BE GLAD TO ADDRESS THEM
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