Chapter 1 Terms
Chapter 1 Terms PSY 361
Long Beach State
Popular in Child and Adolescent Development
Popular in Department
This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Eunice kim on Monday September 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 361 at California State University Long Beach taught by May Ling Halim in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views.
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Date Created: 09/19/16
Chapter 1 Terms Nature: our biological endowment, the genes we receive from our parents Nurture: the environments, both physical and social, that influence our development Continuous development: the idea that changes with age occur gradually, in small increments, like that of a pine tree growing taller and taller Discontinuous development: the idea that changes with age include occasional large shifts, like the transition from caterpillar to cocoon to butterfly Stage theories: approaches that propose that development involves a series of discontinuous, agerelated phases Cognitive development: the development of thinking and reasoning Neurotransmitters: chemicals involved in communications among brain cells Sociocultural context: the physical, social, cultural, economic, and historical circumstances that make up any child’s environment Socioeconomic status: a measure of social class based on income and education Scientific method: an approach to testing beliefs that involves choosing a question, formulating a hypothesis, testing the hypothesis, and drawing conclusion Hypotheses: an educated guess Reliability: the degree to which independent measurements of a given behavior are consistent Interrater Reliability: the amount of agreement in the observations of different raters who witness the same behavior Testretest reliability: the degree of similarity of a child’s performance on two or more occasions Validity: the degree to which a test measures what it is intended to measure Internal validity: the degree to which effects observed within experiments can be attributed to the variables that the researcher intentionally manipulated External validity: the degree to which results can be generalized beyond the particulars of the research Structured interview: a research procedure in which all participants are asked to answer the same questions Clinical interview: a procedure in which questions are adjusted in accord with the answers the interviewee provides Naturalistic observation: examination of ongoing behavior in an environment not controlled by the researcher Structured observation: a method that involves presenting an identical situation to each child and recording the child’s behavior Variables: attributes that vary across individuals and situations, such as age, gender, and expectations Correlational designs: studies intended to indicate how variables are related to each other Correlation: the association between two variables Correlation coefficient: a statistic that indicates the direction and strength of a correlation Directionofcausation problem: the concept that a correlation between two variables does not indicate which, if either, variable is the cause of the other Thirdvariable problem: the concept that a correlation between two variables may stem from both being influenced by some third variable Experimental designs: a group of approaches that allow inferences about causesand effects to be drawn Random assignment: a procedure in which each child has an equal chance of being assigned to each group within an experiment Experimental control: the ability of researchers to determine the specific experiences that children have during the course of an experiment Experimental group: a group of children in an experimental design who are presented the experience of interest Control group: the group of children in an experimental design who are not presented the experience of interest but in other ways are treated similarly Independent variable: the experience that children in the experimental group receive and that children in the control group do not receive Dependent variable: a behavior that is measured to determine whether it is affected by exposure to the independent variable Crosssectional design: a research method in which children of different ages are compared on a given behavior or characteristic over a short period of time Longitudinal design: a method of study in which the same children are studied twice or more over a substantial period of time Microgenetic design: a method of study in which the same children are studied repeatedly over a short period of time Countingon strategy: counting up from the larger addend the number of times indicated by the smaller addend
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