Chapter 15 Terms
Chapter 15 Terms PSY 361
Long Beach State
Popular in Child and Adolescent Development
Popular in Department
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Date Created: 09/19/16
Chapter 15 Terms Assertion: the tendency to take action on behalf of the self through competitive, independent, or aggressive behaviors Affiliation: the tendency to affirm connection with others through being emotionally open, empathetic, or cooperative Collaboration: a blending of the assertion and affiliation styles of behavior. Associated with genderrole flexibility, it is more common among girls than among boys. Androgens: a class of hormones that normally occur at higher levels in males than in females and that affect physical development and functioning from the prenatal period onward Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH): a condition in which the adrenal glands produce high levels or hormones that have androgenlike effects Organizational hormonal influences: the potential result of certain sexlinked hormones affecting brain differentiation and organization during prenatal development or at puberty Activational hormonal influences: the potential result of certain fluctuations in sexlinked hormone levels affecting the contemporaneous activation of certain brain and behavioral responses. Gender selfsocialization: the process through which children’s biases to behave in accord with their gender identity is strengthened by their greater attention to and involvement with entities and activities deemed appropriate to their gender Gender identity: awareness of one’s own gender Gender stability: awareness that gender is stable over time Gender constancy: the realization that gender is invariant despite superficial changes in a person’s appearance or behavior Gender schemas: organized mental representations (concepts, beliefs, memories) about gender, including gender stereotypes Ingroup bias: tendency to evaluate individuals and characteristics of the ingroup as superior to those of the outgroup Ingroup assimilation: process whereby individuals are socialized to conform to the group’s norms, demonstrating the characteristics that define the ingroup Tuition: learning about gender through direct teaching Enactive experience: learning about gender through experiencing the reactions one’s behavior Opportunity structure: the economic resources offered by the macrosystem in Bronfenbrenner’s bioecological model, and people’s understanding of those resources Gender segregation: children’s tendency to associate with samegender peers and avoid other gender peers Genderrole intensification: refers to heightened concerns with adhering to traditional gender roles Genderrole flexibility: refers to advances in cognitive development that can allow adolescents (more often girls than boys) to transcend traditional conventions and pursue a more flexible range of interests Effect size: the magnitude of similarity and difference between groups Metaanalysis: a statistical technique used to summarize the average effect size across studies Puberty: the developmental period marked by the ability to reproduce and other dramatic bodily changes Menarche: the onset of menstruation Spermarche: the onset of males’ capacity for ejaculation Body image: an individual’s perception of, and feelings about, his or her own body Adrenarche: the period, prior to the emergence of visible signs of puberty, during which the adrenal glands mature, providing a major source of sex steroids. This period correlates with the onset of sexual attraction.
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