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Geology Lab Week 4 Notes and readinng

by: Brandon Notetaker

Geology Lab Week 4 Notes and readinng GEOS 1111L

Marketplace > University of Arkansas > Geology > GEOS 1111L > Geology Lab Week 4 Notes and readinng
Brandon Notetaker
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Notes from class, and reading assignment.
Geology Lab
Josh Stokes
Class Notes
Geology, lab
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brandon Notetaker on Monday September 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEOS 1111L at University of Arkansas taught by Josh Stokes in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Geology Lab in Geology at University of Arkansas.


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Date Created: 09/19/16
Week 4 Lab and Reading Assignment (Week of 9/11/16) Igneous Rocks   Rocks which have crystallized from molten rock   Composed of different minerals   Lava ­ Extrusive (Volcanic) ­ Molten rock above ground   Magma ­ Intrusive (Plutonic) ­ Molten rock underground Igneous Rock Textures   Textures refer to crystalline structure; governed by cooling rate; affects size or organization   Phaneritic ­ Intrusive (Plutonic) ­ Large, Coarse Crystals ­ Slow Cooling   Aphanitic ­ Extrusive (Volcanic) ­ Fine Grained Crystals ­ Fast Cooling   Polyphyritic ­ Multiple Crystal Sizes ­ Multiple Cooling Stages Special Igneous Rock Textures   Volcanic ­ Textures refer to crystalline structure; governed by cooling rate; size or organization   Glassy ­ Extrusive (Volcanic) ­ Unorganized Crystals ­ Fast Cooling ­ Obsidian, Pumice   Vesicular ­ Extrusive (Volcanic) ­ Porous due to gas ­ Fine Grained Crystals ­ Fast Cooling ­ Pumice, Scoria   Pyroclastic ­ Tuffaceous – fragments < 4mm ­ Volcanic Breccia – fragments > 4mm  Classifying Igneous Rocks Mineral Composition   Quartz ­ Crystalline, Many Colors   Orthoclase ­ Cleavage, Pink   Plagioclase ­ Cleavage, White   Amphibole (ferromagnesian) ­ Dark­Green to Black   Augite (ferromagnesian) ­ Brown, Black, Greenish, Violet­Brown   Olivine (ferromagnesian) ­ Green Crystals  Classifying Igneous Rocks Mineral Composition   Felsic ­ Abundant Quartz, Orthoclase > Plagioclase, < 15% ferromagnesian, Granite   Intermediate ­ Little to No Quartz, Plagioclase > Orthoclase, 15 – 40% ferromagnesian, Diorite   Mafic ­ No Quartz or Orthoclase ­ 10 – 60% Plagioclase ­ 40 – 90% ferromagnesian – Gabbro Identifying Igneous Rocks   Mineral Texture – Phaneritic, Aphanitic, Porphyritic, Glassy, Vesicular, and Pyroclastic  Mineral Composition ­ Is There Quartz? Plagioclase or Orthoclase? and Ferromagnesian Minerals  Classifications – Felsic, Intermediate, and Mafic Chapter 5 – Reading Assignment   Pages 87­91: What is the definition of a sedimentary rock? What are the two processes that create sedimentary  rocks? Understand the types of sedimentary rocks created from these processes.  Sedimentary Rocks – Consist of a material derived from preexisting rocks through physical erosion and chemical  weathering. Two processes that create sedimentary rocks   Physical Erosion – erosion of rocks by wind and water to produce solid particles such as clay silt, sand, and pebbles (Which can become cemented together to form detrital sedimentary rock)  Chemical weathering – alternation of rocks by water to produce chemical elements in solution and (commonly)  residual clay. There can be either the complete dissolving of rock, or partial dissolving of minerals, putting some  elements in solution and leaving others behind as a residue of clay minerals that comprise soil Detrital – fragments produced through disintegration. Elements in solution precipitated?  Organic sedimentary rocks – Skeletal remains of plants and animals  Chemical – precipitated directly from water Lithification – myriad processes where different materials contribute to development of sedimentary rocks. Four processes (Compaction, Cementation, Precipitation, and Recrystallization) Detrital Sedimentary Rocks   Classified by sizes of grain.  Gravel – Grains are pebble size  Sand – Grains range from the size of match heads down to pinhead. sandpaper  Silt – Grains are hardly visible to the unaided eye, but abrasive to touch like the fine side of a nail file. Gritty to the  teeth  Clay – Not abrasive. Smooth. Slick when wt. pasty to the teeth.  Mud – a mixture of silt and clay  Breccia – pebble size grains are angular in shape.  Organic Sedimentary Rocks  Two kinds: Organic limestones and organic carbon   Organic Limestones – consist of fragments of sea shell cemented together. 3 common varieties (Fossiliferous,  Coquina, and Chalk)  Organic Carbon – Coals consist of organic carbon residue of plants that were buried with sediments and later  compacted and distilled by the heat and pressure of burial. Chemical Sedimentary Rocks  Two Groups: primary and secondary  Primary chemical sedimentary rocks – precipitated on rock surfaces and in open spaces within rocks at or near  Earth’s surface. Includes Rock Salt, Rock gypsum, and Chemical limestone.  Secondary Chemical Sedimentary rock – develops through the chemical change of earlier rock by elements  transported by water. Includes Dolostone, and Chert (flint)  Rock Salt – Evaporite mineral that is precipitated within seas and lakes where water has evaporated to a salinity  approximately ten times saltier than that of seawater.  Rock gypsum – precipitated within seas and lakes where water has evaporated to a salinity approximately four  times that of seawater  Chemical limestone – calcium carbonate that is precipitated  Dolostone – rock that consists of dolomite produced by the replacement of limestone by the activity of magnesium  in water.  Chert (flint) – Rock that consists of micro­crystalline quartz.  Pages 92­95, 98­100: Familiarize yourself with the Table 5.1, and notice the different sedimentary structures on pg.  99.


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