Management, Organization, and Motivation
Management, Organization, and Motivation GEN BUS 311
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This 16 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kaylee Olson on Monday September 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEN BUS 311 at University of Wisconsin - Madison taught by in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Fundamentals of Management and Marketing for Non-Business Majors in Business at University of Wisconsin - Madison.
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Date Created: 09/19/16
MANAGING FOR BUSINESS SUCCESS Manager: making a group of people more effective and efficient with you than they would be without you. Management: the process of planning, organizing, directing, and controlling resources to achieve specific goals In planning, they set goals and determine the best way to achieve them. Organizing means allocating resources (people, equipment, and money) to carry out the company’s plans. Directing is the process of providing focus for employees and motivating them to achieve organizational goals. Controlling involves comparing actual to expected performance and taking corrective action when necessary. PLANNING Strategic planning: the process of establishing an overall course of action. Write a mission statement that tells customers, employees, and others why your organization exists. Identify core values or beliefs that will guide the behavior of members of the organization. Assess the company’s strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats. Establish goals and objectives, or performance targets, to direct all the activities that you’ll perform to achieve your mission. Develop and implement tactical and operational plans to achieve goals and objectives. SWOT analysis: calls for analyzing an organization’s Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats External factors economic conditions, competition, technology, laws, and expectations o Identify opportunities and threats Strengths and weaknesses o Strengths motivated workforce, technology, managerial talent, location o Weakness (opposite) Goals are major accomplishments that the company wants to achieve over a long period (say, five years) Objectives are shorterterm performance targets that direct the activities of the organization toward the attainment of a goal Should be clearly stated and attainable Change over time Tactical Plans: overall plan is broken down into more manageable, shorterterm components Specify activities and allocation of resources A fiveyear strategic plan might be implemented as five oneyear tactical plans. Operational Plans: provide detailed action steps to be taken by individuals or groups to implement the tactical plan and, consequently, the strategic plan Week or month Contingency planning: managers identify those aspects of the business that are most likely to be adversely affected by change Crisis Management: members gather information quickly and respond to the crisis while everyone else carries out their normal duties ORGANIZING Organizing: allocates resources (people, equipment, and money) to achieve a company’s plans. Levels of Management Organizational structure: an arrangement of positions that’s most appropriate for your company at a specific point in time. Restructuring: altering existing organizational structures to become more competitive under conditions that have changed Departmentalization: grouping specialized jobs into meaningful units Functional organization: groups together people who have comparable skills and perform similar tasks Accountants, marketing and sales, HR, production, research and development Divisional organizations made up of several smaller, selfcontained units, or divisions, which are accountable for their own performance Contains all functional expertise Formed according to products, customers, processes, or geography o Product division means that a company is structured according to its product lines o Some companies prefer a customer division structure because it enables them to better serve their various categories of customers o If goods move through several steps during production, a company might opt for a process division structure. o Geographical division enables companies that operate in several locations to be responsive to customers at a local level. Organization chart: a diagram delineating the interrelationships of positions within the organization Reporting relationships: or patterns of formal communication Chain of Command: the authority relationships among people working at different levels of the organization Matrix structure: employees from various functional areas (product design, manufacturing, finance, marketing, human resources, etc.) form teams to combine their skills in working on a specific project or product. Companies determine which tradeoffs to make according to a principle called span of control, which measures the number of people reporting to a particular manager. What’s better—a narrow span of control (with few direct reports) or a wide span of control (with many direct reports)? Delegation—the process of entrusting work to subordinates Responsibility alone—the duty to perform a task—won’t be enough to get the job done. You’ll need to grant subordinates the authority they require to complete a task—that is, the power to make the necessary decisions. If most decision making is concentrated at the top, it is called centralization Spreads decision making throughout the organization: decentralization. DIRECTING Directing: providing focus and direction to others and motivating them to achieve organizational goals Leadership Styles: way of interacting with and influencing others Autocratic style. Managers who have developed an autocratic leadership style tend to make decisions without soliciting input from subordinates. They exercise authority and expect subordinates to take responsibility for performing the required tasks without undue explanation. o Members need to be familiar with what is to be done Democratic style. Managers who favor a democratic leadership style generally seek input from subordinates while retaining the authority to make the final decisions. They’re also more likely to keep subordinates informed about things that affect their work. o Members need to be motivated, provide input, get along Laissezfaire style. In practicing a laissezfaire leadership style, managers adopt a “hands off” approach and provide relatively little direction to subordinates. They may advise employees but usually give them considerable freedom to solve problems and make decisions on their own. o Members need to be able to work independently Transactional Leadership Transactional leaders exercise authority based on their rank in the organization. They let subordinates know what’s expected of them and what they will receive if they meet stated objectives. They focus their attention on identifying mistakes and disciplining employees for poor performance Transformational leaders mentor and develop subordinates, providing them with challenging opportunities, working oneonone to help them meet their professional and personal needs, and encouraging people to approach problems from new perspectives. o Proven to be more effective CONTROLLING Controlling: comparing actual to planned performance and taking necessary corrective action FiveStep Control Process Managerial Skills Technical skills—the ones you need to perform specific tasks Interpersonal skills—the ability to get along with and motivate other people Foster teamwork, build trust, manage conflict, and encourage improvement Timemanagement skills Decisionmaking skills: process in which you must define a problem, analyze possible solutions, and select the best outcome Problem Solving Assessing Your School’s Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats How can you and other members of your team help your college or university assess its fit with its environment? For one thing, you could apply SWOT analysis. Begin by picking a member of the team to write down ideas generated by the group using brainstorming (a technique used to generate ideas that have no right or wrong answers and are accepted by the group without criticism). Pick a different member of the team to complete the SWOT analysis in the format listed subsequently. Then follow these steps: 1. Using brainstorming, identify internal factors, either positive or negative, that are unique to your school. List all items suggested by group members on a large sheet of paper or a blackboard. 2. Based on your analysis of the items listed (in step 1), the team should select at least five factors that are strengths and five that are weaknesses. 3. List the selected strengths and weaknesses in the SWOT analysis form. 4. Using brainstorming, identify external factors that could influence your school in either a positive or a negative way. Include all items suggested by group members. List the ideas on a large sheet of paper or a blackboard. 5. Based on your analysis of the items listed (in step 4), select at least five opportunities that could benefit your school and five threats to its success. 6. List the selected opportunities and threats in the SWOT analysis form. 7. Analyze the selected opportunities and strengths (which have been listed on the SWOT analysis form) and identify several ways in which your school can take advantage of opportunities by making the most of its strengths. Record your suggestions on the SWOT analysis form. 8. Analyze the selected threats and weaknesses (which have been listed on the SWOT analysis form) and identify several ways in which your school can protect itself from threats and overcome its weaknesses. Record your suggestions on the SWOT analysis form. Team Members STRENGTHS WEAKNESSES OPPORTUNITIES THREATS o Ways in which your school can take advantage of opportunities by making the most of its strengths o Ways in which your school can protect itself from threats and overcome its weaknesses RECRUITING, MOTIVATING, AND KEEPING QUALITY EMPLOYEES Human Resource Management (HRM): all actions that an organization takes to attract, develop, and retain quality employees Strategic human resource planning—the process of developing a plan for satisfying an organization’s human resources (HR) needs Job Analysis: identify the tasks, responsibilities, and skills that it entails, as well as the knowledge and abilities needed to perform it A job description, which lists the duties and responsibilities of a position A job specification, which lists the qualifications—skills, knowledge, and abilities— needed to perform the job How to Forecast Hiring (and Firing) Needs Recruiting is the process of identifying suitable candidates and encouraging them to apply for openings in the organization Discrimination occurs when a person is treated unfairly on the basis of a characteristic unrelated to ability. Apply to promoting, compensating, and firing as well The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) enforces a number of federal employment laws, including the following: Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which prohibits employment discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin. Sexual harassment is also a violation of Title VII. The Equal Pay Act of 1963, which protects both women and men who do substantially equal work from sexbased pay discrimination. The Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1964, which protects individuals who are forty or older. Title I and Title V of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, which prohibits employment discrimination against individuals with disabilities. The selection process entails gathering information on candidates, evaluating their qualifications, and choosing the right one Developing Employees NewEmployee Orientation Orientation—the way it introduces new employees to the organization and their jobs. Training and Development Offthejob training: Formal employee training that occurs in a location away from the office Onthejob training: informal training that occurs while employee is on the job Diversity in the Workplace People with diverse backgrounds bring fresh points of view that can be invaluable in generating ideas and solving problems. They can be the key to connecting with an ethnically diverse customer base Motivating Employees Motivation refers to an internally generated drive to achieve a goal or follow a particular course of action Hierarchyofneeds theory: 1. We must satisfy lowerlevel needs before we seek to satisfy higherlevel needs. 2. Once we’ve satisfied a need, it no longer motivates us; the next higher need takes its place. Needs Theory and Workplace o Not all employees are driven by the same needs o The needs that motivate individuals can change over tme TwoFactor Theory o Motivation factors: strong contributors to job satisfaction o Hygiene factors: not strong contributors to satisfaction but that must be present to meet a worker’s expectation and prevent job dissatisfaction Expectancy Theory: proposes that employees will work hard to earn rewards that they value and that they consider obtainable. o 1. The employee believes that his or her efforts will result in acceptable performance. o 2. The employee believes that acceptable performance will lead to the desired outcome or reward. o 3. The employee values the reward. Equity theory of motivation: focuses on our perceptions of how fairly we’re treated relative to others What Makes a Great Place to Work? Trust between managers and employees Job rotation allows employees to rotate from one job to another on a systematic basis, eventually cycling back to their original tasks Job enlargement—the policy of enhancing a job by adding tasks at similar skill levels Job enrichment is the practice of adding tasks that increase both responsibility and opportunity for growth. Employers who provide for flextime set guidelines that allow employees to designate starting and quitting times. Compressed workweeks, longer weekends Job sharing, two people share one fulltime position, splitting the salary and benefits of the position as each handles half the job. Telecommuting regularly work from home Childcare Paid Parental leave Competitive pay and benefits Incentive programs: programs designed to reward employees for good performance Bonuses—annual income given in addition to salary—are based on companywide performance Profitsharing plan: relies on a predetermined formula to distribute a share of the company’s profits to eligible employees Benefits—compensation other than salaries, hourly wages, or financial incentives o Legally required benefits (Social Security and Medicare, unemployment insurance, workers’ compensation) o Paid time off (vacations, holidays, sick leave) o Insurance (health benefits, life insurance, disability insurance) o Retirement benefits Performance Appraisal 1. Before managers can measure performance, they must set goals and performance expectations and specify the criteria (such as quality of work, quantity of work, dependability, initiative) that they’ll use to measure performance. 2. At the end of a specified time period, managers complete written evaluations that rate employee performance according to the predetermined criteria. 3. Managers then meet with each employee to discuss the evaluation. Jointly, they suggest ways in which the employee can improve performance, which might include further training and development. 360Degree and Upward Feedback: purpose is to ensure that employees (mostly managers) get feedback from all directions—from supervisors, reporting subordinates, coworkers, and even customers. Turnover—the permanent separation of an employee from a company Why People Quit Making unreasonable work demands Refusing to value their opinions Failing to be clear about what’s expected of subordinates Rejecting work unnecessarily Showing favoritism in compensation, rewards, or promotions Downsizing—to cutting costs by eliminating jobs. Labor union—an organized group of workers that bargains with employers to improve its members’ pay, job security, and working conditions Locals, national unions, labor federation The process of settling differences and establishing mutually agreeable conditions under which employees will work is called collective bargaining. o Mediation: an impartial third party assesses the situation and makes recommendations for reaching an agreement. o Arbitration: the third party studies the situation and arrives at a binding agreement. Grievances—worker complaints on contractrelated matter The tactics available to the union include striking, picketing, and boycotting o Strike: workers walk away from their jobs and refuse to return until the issue at hand has been resolved o Picketing: workers parading with signs outside a factory or an office building (or even a school) o Boycotting: in which union workers refuse to buy a company’s products and try to get other people to follow suit Management tactics o Lockout—closing the workplace to workers—though it’s rarely used because it’s legal only when unionized workers pose a credible threat to the employer’s financial viability o Strikebreakers—nonunion workers who are willing to cross picket lines to replace strikers
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