Race and Minorities Week 3
Race and Minorities Week 3 ANTY 122S - 01
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ANTY 122S - 01
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Meaghan Raw on Monday September 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANTY 122S - 01 at University of Montana taught by Gregory Ray Campbell (P in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Race and Minorities in Social Sciences at University of Montana.
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Date Created: 09/19/16
Race and Minorities: Week 3 9/12/16 By the 1700’s people classified races and attached the qualities of these races to people Racial traits became immutable within each race There are, by default, immutable superior and inferior traits Descriptive measurements crystallized around phenotype o More biologically focused o “colortyping” Another aspect of race study began to take root and was associated mainly in Europe o In Europe they fought about nationalism and how one nation was superior to another o Asked questions about history and its progress in racial terms o Studies and Thoughts: W.F. Edwards 1829 Was mad about the book by A. Thierry “History off the Gaul’s” Delivered a conference paper at the royal academy of medicine Paris, France Said that the British are superior to the French Racial purity of one nation/race to another He discussed the broader issues Gabel and Spurzheim Notion of racial brain that was spread Phrenology came into play with this o The study of the contours of the skull to determine brain o Every race possesses a racial brain o The studies that were conducted were then put into practice by the people o The notion fit into the ideas that there was such a thing as a racial brain Scientist postulates o Assumption the brain o Size of the area amount of faculty within the brain o Outer skull corresponds to the inner brain structure to afford a means of diagnosing individual character i.e. look at the outside and know what is on the inside Materialistic psychology o Function depends on organization Structure determines function o Racial brain is different than this one because it varies in shape o Every brain thinks different because it is of a different shape Racial brain leads to racial differences Raciologists noted that races possess independent faculties related to certain areas of the brain and they are immutable and passed on from parent to offspring By the 1840’s skull shape came to the forefront as doliocephalic and brachycephalic 1842 Anders Retzius o Looked at the Nordic traits of superior and inferior o He concluded that Swedes are superior because they are doliocephalic o The Finnish are inferior indigenous because they are brachycephalic o The Swedes are ancestral to the Indo Europeans 9/14/16 Not only did materialistic psychology come about, bt they connected the racial brain to a racial body Race and body became one 1830s50s became embodied in nationalism and national progress Arthur de Gobineau o Aristrcrat in France o Scholar o Became interested in race, nationalism, and progress o Wrote the “Essay of Inequality of races” Every race possesses special race characteristics Notion of blood mixture Racial decadence o Two races with special characteristics go to more races that are mixed blood o The nation state will be infected with inferior blood and civilization will decline o Must keep ruling elite racially pure o Decadence occurs when impurity increases o Semites/Jews are the lowest of the low o 1830s50s the races became social and political and economic qualities o Development of the quota systems o August 2, 1830 there was a debate that raged between baron Cuver vs. Geoffery St. Hillarie Race debate Organic unity of life Is there one human race or are races divided and are they really separate species Polygynymany races not unified Monogyny we were all related but separated What made them separate? Developed atavisms in 18301859 Organic unity of life took on a place of its own 3 things debated in the PreEvolutionary era o How to arrange species in an order of similarity o How to account for change o Explain the “fixity” of species 9/16/16 Biomaterialistic category = race 1859 November 24 o Charles Darwin published the “Origin of species” o Established that all species have a common ancestor o Modified the notion of race o Polygyny was thrown out o Monogyny and Darwinism became one and bastardized Natural selection was distorted to mean survival of the fittest Developed a whole school of thought called Social Darwinism o Used to explain all of society Noted that as races begin a struggle for existence they compete with each other Atavisms completely emerged Created an atmosphere where people talked about and became specialists in race and what is going to happen to them Atavisms will create chaos in the societies that had developed Race specialists became once again obsessed with measuring all aspects of the human body It soon became a mechanism to explain everything Broca in Paris, France wrote anthropological memoirs o 5 volume set of what and how to measure and to discover race and its qualities Van Tork wrote about skulls using 5000 measurements Social postulates o American scientists claimed great differences amongst human groups that separate us o Differences are primordial o Since racial differences are wide and deep you can find their expressions in everything o Once discovered races yield positive facts about race o Race scientists began to racialize and engage in racialization 180s to 1920s they looked at all aspects and give it racial qualities Cephalic index was developed o All were develop din this context
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