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by: Meaghan Raw


Meaghan Raw
GPA 3.0

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About this Document

These notes cover chapter two from lecture and the textbook. Happy Studying!
Intro to Psychology
Jacob Bloch
Class Notes
Psychology, Intro to Psychology
25 ?




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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Meaghan Raw on Monday September 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYX 100S - 06 at University of Montana taught by Jacob Bloch in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Psychology And Social Behavior at University of Montana.

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Date Created: 09/19/16
PSYCHOLOGY Chapter 2: Research Enterprise in Psychology  Goals of the scientific enterprise o Measurement and description o Understanding and prediction o Application and control  Achieving these goals o Construct theories  Theory­ system of interrelated ideas used to explain a set of observations  Transition from describing to understanding   Theories must be testable  Steps in scientific investigation o Formulate a hypothesis  A hypothesis must be measurable and operationally defined o Select a research method and design the study  What is the nature of the question  Who are the participants  Subjects whose behavior is observed o Collect the data  Many techniques  Surveys, observation, interview, tests, recordings, archival records o Analyze the data and draw conclusions   Numbers, stats, interviews o Report the findings   Clear, concise summary  Present in a display or conference o Advantages of the scientific approach  Clarity and precision  Relative intolerance of error  Looking for causes o What is the experiment?  Allow the researchers to detect cause and effect realtionships o Variables  Independent variable­ what the experimenter controls/manipulates  Dependent variable­ depends upon the independent variable manipulation  Experimental and Control groups o Experimental  Special treatment of thee independent variable o Control  No special treatment   No independent variable  If they are alike any difference must come from the independent variable o Extraneous variable  Any variable other than the independent variable that can influence the  dependent variable   Age, gender, noise, etc. o Confounding variable  Two variables that are linked together that make it difficult to sort out  individual effect o Advantages of experimental research  Cause and effect conclusions o Disadvantages of experimental research  Experiments are artificial  Experiments can’t be used for unethical or practical reasons   Pregnancy, death situations, isolation  Descriptive correlational research  Patterns of behavior   Discover associations between variables  Can’t manipulate variables  No cause and effect relationship o Correlation   Exists when two variables are related together  Coefficient  Indicates numerical relationship o Positive or negative (­,+) o How strongly they are related (­1,0,1)  Positive vs. Negative  Positive  o Same direction  Negative o Opposite direction  Strength of correlation  Size of the coefficient indicates the strength of the association  between variables o 0 = no correlation o 1 = high correlation/relationship o ­1 or +1 = perfect correlation/relationship o Types of correlational research  Naturalistic observation  Careful observation of behavior w/out direct intervention  o Case studies  In depth investigation of an individual subject   Advantage  Helpful when diagnosing and treating  psychological problems  Real­life information  Disadvantage  Very intensive  In depth  Highly subjective   Difficult to apply the findings to the general  population o Surveys  Questionnaires/ interviews to gather information  about specific aspect s  Advantages  Data collection from large samples of  behavior that is difficult to observe  Disadvantages  Difficult to ensure that the data is accurate  Advantage o Allows behavior to unfold naturally in a normal setting  Disadvantage o Reactivity of subjects  o Behavior is altered due to the presence of an observer o Advantages of descriptive correlational research  Explore questions that can’t be examined  with experimental procedures  Broaden the scope of phenomena that psychologists study o Disadvantages of correlational research  Cant demonstrate cause and effect relationships  Correlation is NOT causation  Statistics – the use of mathematics or organize, summarize, and interpret numerical data. o Permit researchers to draw conclusions based on research observations o 2 types of statistics:  Descriptive  Inferential o Descriptive Statistics – used to organize and summarize data o Measures of Central Tendency  Median: score that falls exactly in the center of the distribution scores  If there are 2 middle numbers, average them  Mean: arithmetic average of the scores in a distribution  Mode: most frequent score o Measures of Variability  Refers to how much the scores in a data set vary from each other and  the mean (standard deviation)  Standard deviation  68, 95, 99.7 o Inferential Statistics  Used to interpret data and draw conclusions o Does our data support our hypothesis? o Are our results significant or due to chance? o Statistical significance o Exists when the probability that the observed findings are due to chance is  very low o P<.05 = a significant finding  Looking for Flaws: Evaluation Research  Sampling Bias o Exists when a sample is not representative of the population from which it  was drawn o Population: large collection of people that researchers want to generalize  about o Sample: the collection of subjects from the population selected for an  observation in an empirical study  A biased sample limits the generalizability of the research findings  Pitfalls in Scientific Research o Placebo Effects  Occur when the participants’ expectations lead them to experience  lead them to experience some change… Even though they receive  empty, fake, or ineffectual treatment   Distortions in Self­Report Data o Social Desirability Bias: tendency to give socially approved answers to  questions about oneself o Response Set: tendency to respond to questions in a particular way that is  unrelated to the content of the question o Experimenter Bias  Occurs when a researcher’s expectations or preferences about the  outcome of a study influence the results obtained o Halo Effect: occurs when one’s overall evaluation of a person, object, or  institution spills over to influence more specific ratings o Double­Blind Procedure  Research strategy designed to avoid experimenter bias  Neither participant nor experimenters know which subjects  are in the experimental or control groups  Looking at Ethics: Do the Ends justify the means? o Deception in Research?  Debate over the ethical principles of using deception in research  Research suggests deception studies are not harmful to participants o Most research subjects enjoying research participation and don’t mind being misled o Ethical Principles in Research  APA has developed a set of ethical standards for researchers to ensure  both human and animal subjects are treated with dignity  Human guidelines: o Participation is always voluntary o Participants are not subjects to harmful or dangerous treatments o If a study requires deception, participation will be debriefed as  soon as possible o Participants right to privacy is never compromised  Animal guidelines: o Harmful or painful procedures cannot be justified unless the  potential benefits of the research are substantial o Research animals are entitled to decent living conditions


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