PSYCHOLOGY 101 PSYX 100S - 06
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Meaghan Raw on Monday September 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYX 100S - 06 at University of Montana taught by Jacob Bloch in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Psychology And Social Behavior at University of Montana.
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Date Created: 09/19/16
PSYCHOLOGY Chapter 2: Research Enterprise in Psychology Goals of the scientific enterprise o Measurement and description o Understanding and prediction o Application and control Achieving these goals o Construct theories Theory system of interrelated ideas used to explain a set of observations Transition from describing to understanding Theories must be testable Steps in scientific investigation o Formulate a hypothesis A hypothesis must be measurable and operationally defined o Select a research method and design the study What is the nature of the question Who are the participants Subjects whose behavior is observed o Collect the data Many techniques Surveys, observation, interview, tests, recordings, archival records o Analyze the data and draw conclusions Numbers, stats, interviews o Report the findings Clear, concise summary Present in a display or conference o Advantages of the scientific approach Clarity and precision Relative intolerance of error Looking for causes o What is the experiment? Allow the researchers to detect cause and effect realtionships o Variables Independent variable what the experimenter controls/manipulates Dependent variable depends upon the independent variable manipulation Experimental and Control groups o Experimental Special treatment of thee independent variable o Control No special treatment No independent variable If they are alike any difference must come from the independent variable o Extraneous variable Any variable other than the independent variable that can influence the dependent variable Age, gender, noise, etc. o Confounding variable Two variables that are linked together that make it difficult to sort out individual effect o Advantages of experimental research Cause and effect conclusions o Disadvantages of experimental research Experiments are artificial Experiments can’t be used for unethical or practical reasons Pregnancy, death situations, isolation Descriptive correlational research Patterns of behavior Discover associations between variables Can’t manipulate variables No cause and effect relationship o Correlation Exists when two variables are related together Coefficient Indicates numerical relationship o Positive or negative (,+) o How strongly they are related (1,0,1) Positive vs. Negative Positive o Same direction Negative o Opposite direction Strength of correlation Size of the coefficient indicates the strength of the association between variables o 0 = no correlation o 1 = high correlation/relationship o 1 or +1 = perfect correlation/relationship o Types of correlational research Naturalistic observation Careful observation of behavior w/out direct intervention o Case studies In depth investigation of an individual subject Advantage Helpful when diagnosing and treating psychological problems Reallife information Disadvantage Very intensive In depth Highly subjective Difficult to apply the findings to the general population o Surveys Questionnaires/ interviews to gather information about specific aspect s Advantages Data collection from large samples of behavior that is difficult to observe Disadvantages Difficult to ensure that the data is accurate Advantage o Allows behavior to unfold naturally in a normal setting Disadvantage o Reactivity of subjects o Behavior is altered due to the presence of an observer o Advantages of descriptive correlational research Explore questions that can’t be examined with experimental procedures Broaden the scope of phenomena that psychologists study o Disadvantages of correlational research Cant demonstrate cause and effect relationships Correlation is NOT causation Statistics – the use of mathematics or organize, summarize, and interpret numerical data. o Permit researchers to draw conclusions based on research observations o 2 types of statistics: Descriptive Inferential o Descriptive Statistics – used to organize and summarize data o Measures of Central Tendency Median: score that falls exactly in the center of the distribution scores If there are 2 middle numbers, average them Mean: arithmetic average of the scores in a distribution Mode: most frequent score o Measures of Variability Refers to how much the scores in a data set vary from each other and the mean (standard deviation) Standard deviation 68, 95, 99.7 o Inferential Statistics Used to interpret data and draw conclusions o Does our data support our hypothesis? o Are our results significant or due to chance? o Statistical significance o Exists when the probability that the observed findings are due to chance is very low o P<.05 = a significant finding Looking for Flaws: Evaluation Research Sampling Bias o Exists when a sample is not representative of the population from which it was drawn o Population: large collection of people that researchers want to generalize about o Sample: the collection of subjects from the population selected for an observation in an empirical study A biased sample limits the generalizability of the research findings Pitfalls in Scientific Research o Placebo Effects Occur when the participants’ expectations lead them to experience lead them to experience some change… Even though they receive empty, fake, or ineffectual treatment Distortions in SelfReport Data o Social Desirability Bias: tendency to give socially approved answers to questions about oneself o Response Set: tendency to respond to questions in a particular way that is unrelated to the content of the question o Experimenter Bias Occurs when a researcher’s expectations or preferences about the outcome of a study influence the results obtained o Halo Effect: occurs when one’s overall evaluation of a person, object, or institution spills over to influence more specific ratings o DoubleBlind Procedure Research strategy designed to avoid experimenter bias Neither participant nor experimenters know which subjects are in the experimental or control groups Looking at Ethics: Do the Ends justify the means? o Deception in Research? Debate over the ethical principles of using deception in research Research suggests deception studies are not harmful to participants o Most research subjects enjoying research participation and don’t mind being misled o Ethical Principles in Research APA has developed a set of ethical standards for researchers to ensure both human and animal subjects are treated with dignity Human guidelines: o Participation is always voluntary o Participants are not subjects to harmful or dangerous treatments o If a study requires deception, participation will be debriefed as soon as possible o Participants right to privacy is never compromised Animal guidelines: o Harmful or painful procedures cannot be justified unless the potential benefits of the research are substantial o Research animals are entitled to decent living conditions