Art 460 Art 460
Minnesota State University, Mankato
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hallie Notetaker on Monday September 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Art 460 at Minnesota State University - Mankato taught by Dr. Alisa Eimen in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Ancient Art in Art History at Minnesota State University - Mankato.
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Date Created: 09/19/16
Chapter Three 1 and 2 Dynasties (Narmer) c. 3000 BCE Establishment of many norms affecting arts Hydraulic works, irrigation Censuses on men and animals Reconciling religious differences and political forces Old Kingdom (2647-2124 BCE) 3 through 8 dynasties Longest period of sustained achievement in Egyptian history o Refined administration, good climate/crops, superiority over foreigners 3 Dynasty (Djoser) o Palettes and maceheads cease to be made o Stone vessels diminish in production o Imperial arts – king’s complex 4 Dynasty (Great Pyramids) o Substantial changes in king’s funerary complexes Step Pyramid of Djoser and Wall Detail Saqqara, c. 2610 BCE Part of a far larger complex Pyramid is at the center o Aligned with cardinal directions and with the north star particularly Mortuary temple is actually right behind the pyramid underground with serdab statue; merged with tomb First monumental work of stone Massive surrounding wall with fourteen entrances, only one of which is a true entrance Jubilee festival area enacted by Djoser in life and death o Run in demonstration of strength Imhotep – first named architect in Egypt o Had a lot of time to plan and add onto temple complex because Djoser lived a long time – six phases of building Engaged/supported colonnades Natural elements incorporated into architecture o Colonnades resemble bundles of reeds o Lotus flower columns Djoser sculpture in serdab room has a hole to look through into the temple to observe rituals Possible symbolic aspect to step form of pyramid Alot that goes into the symbolism that is meant to carry on the king’s power Pyramids of King Snofru (r. 2573-2549 BCE) Bent Pyramid, Maidum, Red Pyramid o Displays of two failed pyramids followed with a successful pyramid Great Pyramids at Giza, c. 2500 BCE Menkaure, Khepren/Khafre with Sphinx, Khufu/Kheops Changes in King’s funerary complex layout Move from step pyramid More elaborate complex Increased number of grave goods More passage ways to deceive looters Tomb is no longer in center Not directly next to mortuary temple East to West axis rather than North focus o Follows path of the sun Buried on West Bank of the Nile Underground because closer to where the sun sets Land of the dead Why do we see these changes? Changing ideas of kingship o Greater emphasis between king and sun god o Axial shift of site aligns it/king with sun o Kings began referring to selves as “son of Ra” o No more emphasis on ritual of territory, but rather on kings’filial relations with Ra Statue of Khephren, c. 2500 BCE Fourth dynasty In relation to Djoser’s statue o More formalized/standardization Carved from rectangular block o Gives rigid look o Also provides stability that will last for ages o Headdress protects the neck from breaking Beard is a status symbol Horus protects from behind symbolically and structurally Importance of symbolism Bust of VizierAnkh-haf Giza tomb, c. 2500 BCE Son of Snofru; half-brother to Khephren Aged look More life-like than kings Gives idea of how sculptures were painted Used to have arms coming forward in situ Non-imperial tomb statuary o More realism Reserve Heads from Giza tomb, c. 2500 BCE Limestone Fourth dynasty Used for preplacing the head if something goes bad with other sculpture heads Menkaure and queen, c. 2460 BCE Valley temple at Giza Representation of an idealized king o Imperialized stature o Highly stylized o Beard and headdress o Left leg forward and shoulder in front of queen – presenting the king o More muscular body, symmetrical o Holding shortened versions of flail and curved staff so they do not break Function is to last through eternity o Trumps realism Menkaure, Hathor and personification of gnome, c. 2460 BCE Valley temple at Giza Bilateral symmetry Gnome is smaller, hierarchy of scale Pepy I, c. 2380 BCE Copper sheathed wooden core From Hierokonpolis Idealized, symmetrical, frontal position Staff in hand and flail Left leg forward Metal does not las as long as stone, but allows for inlay Pepy II on lap of his mother, c. 2230 BCE Alabaster From Saqqara The king is smaller in the sculpture o We know he is the king because of his headdress, stature, has a place to rest his feet o Looks like an adult on a smaller scale Speaks to the status of the queen as well o Has Horus on her hair Perpetuates relationships into the afterlife Scribe statue of Kai, c. 2450 BCE Tomb at Saqqara One of the earliest seated types which continues through the 7 century Has stylus and papyrus scroll indicating he is a scribe Not imperial o Signs of age o Lack of musculature o Not wanting of food – of higher status Only twenty inches in height o Less wealthy Kaaper from his tomb at Saqqara, c. 2450 BCE Life-like non-imperial sculpture Scribe and priest Sycamore wood sculpture o Allows for realism o 3.5 feet tall Female brewer, c. 2350 BCE From tomb of Mersuankh, Giza Beer was an important staple o Necessary for the after-life Servant statues from tomb of Ny Kau Inpu, c. 2445-2414 BCE Signifies the importance of couples in the afterlife Woman is lighter in color to show she works in her home o Higher status to be able to do that o Man is red from working outside the home Starved servant statue o Ribs showing – lower status Support figures within imperial tombs o What was important was the way in which the servants served them
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