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Art 460

by: Hallie Notetaker
Hallie Notetaker
Minnesota State University, Mankato
GPA 3.66

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About this Document

Old Kingdom Egyptian Art
Ancient Art
Dr. Alisa Eimen
Class Notes
25 ?




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Popular in Art History

This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hallie Notetaker on Monday September 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Art 460 at Minnesota State University - Mankato taught by Dr. Alisa Eimen in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Ancient Art in Art History at Minnesota State University - Mankato.

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Date Created: 09/19/16
Chapter Three 1 and 2 Dynasties (Narmer) c. 3000 BCE  Establishment of many norms affecting arts  Hydraulic works, irrigation  Censuses on men and animals  Reconciling religious differences and political forces Old Kingdom (2647-2124 BCE)  3 through 8 dynasties  Longest period of sustained achievement in Egyptian history o Refined administration, good climate/crops, superiority over foreigners  3 Dynasty (Djoser) o Palettes and maceheads cease to be made o Stone vessels diminish in production o Imperial arts – king’s complex  4 Dynasty (Great Pyramids) o Substantial changes in king’s funerary complexes Step Pyramid of Djoser and Wall Detail  Saqqara, c. 2610 BCE  Part of a far larger complex  Pyramid is at the center o Aligned with cardinal directions and with the north star particularly  Mortuary temple is actually right behind the pyramid underground with serdab statue; merged with tomb  First monumental work of stone  Massive surrounding wall with fourteen entrances, only one of which is a true entrance  Jubilee festival area enacted by Djoser in life and death o Run in demonstration of strength  Imhotep – first named architect in Egypt o Had a lot of time to plan and add onto temple complex because Djoser lived a long time – six phases of building  Engaged/supported colonnades  Natural elements incorporated into architecture o Colonnades resemble bundles of reeds o Lotus flower columns  Djoser sculpture in serdab room has a hole to look through into the temple to observe rituals  Possible symbolic aspect to step form of pyramid  Alot that goes into the symbolism that is meant to carry on the king’s power Pyramids of King Snofru (r. 2573-2549 BCE)  Bent Pyramid, Maidum, Red Pyramid o Displays of two failed pyramids followed with a successful pyramid Great Pyramids at Giza, c. 2500 BCE  Menkaure, Khepren/Khafre with Sphinx, Khufu/Kheops Changes in King’s funerary complex layout  Move from step pyramid  More elaborate complex  Increased number of grave goods  More passage ways to deceive looters  Tomb is no longer in center  Not directly next to mortuary temple  East to West axis rather than North focus o Follows path of the sun Buried on West Bank of the Nile  Underground because closer to where the sun sets  Land of the dead Why do we see these changes?  Changing ideas of kingship o Greater emphasis between king and sun god o Axial shift of site aligns it/king with sun o Kings began referring to selves as “son of Ra” o No more emphasis on ritual of territory, but rather on kings’filial relations with Ra Statue of Khephren, c. 2500 BCE  Fourth dynasty  In relation to Djoser’s statue o More formalized/standardization  Carved from rectangular block o Gives rigid look o Also provides stability that will last for ages o Headdress protects the neck from breaking  Beard is a status symbol  Horus protects from behind symbolically and structurally  Importance of symbolism Bust of VizierAnkh-haf  Giza tomb, c. 2500 BCE  Son of Snofru; half-brother to Khephren  Aged look  More life-like than kings  Gives idea of how sculptures were painted  Used to have arms coming forward in situ  Non-imperial tomb statuary o More realism Reserve Heads from Giza tomb, c. 2500 BCE  Limestone  Fourth dynasty  Used for preplacing the head if something goes bad with other sculpture heads Menkaure and queen, c. 2460 BCE  Valley temple at Giza  Representation of an idealized king o Imperialized stature o Highly stylized o Beard and headdress o Left leg forward and shoulder in front of queen – presenting the king o More muscular body, symmetrical o Holding shortened versions of flail and curved staff so they do not break  Function is to last through eternity o Trumps realism Menkaure, Hathor and personification of gnome, c. 2460 BCE  Valley temple at Giza  Bilateral symmetry  Gnome is smaller, hierarchy of scale Pepy I, c. 2380 BCE  Copper sheathed wooden core  From Hierokonpolis  Idealized, symmetrical, frontal position  Staff in hand and flail  Left leg forward  Metal does not las as long as stone, but allows for inlay Pepy II on lap of his mother, c. 2230 BCE  Alabaster  From Saqqara  The king is smaller in the sculpture o We know he is the king because of his headdress, stature, has a place to rest his feet o Looks like an adult on a smaller scale  Speaks to the status of the queen as well o Has Horus on her hair  Perpetuates relationships into the afterlife Scribe statue of Kai, c. 2450 BCE  Tomb at Saqqara  One of the earliest seated types which continues through the 7 century  Has stylus and papyrus scroll indicating he is a scribe  Not imperial o Signs of age o Lack of musculature o Not wanting of food – of higher status  Only twenty inches in height o Less wealthy Kaaper from his tomb at Saqqara, c. 2450 BCE  Life-like non-imperial sculpture  Scribe and priest  Sycamore wood sculpture o Allows for realism o 3.5 feet tall Female brewer, c. 2350 BCE  From tomb of Mersuankh, Giza  Beer was an important staple o Necessary for the after-life Servant statues from tomb of Ny Kau Inpu, c. 2445-2414 BCE  Signifies the importance of couples in the afterlife  Woman is lighter in color to show she works in her home o Higher status to be able to do that o Man is red from working outside the home  Starved servant statue o Ribs showing – lower status  Support figures within imperial tombs o What was important was the way in which the servants served them


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