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BIOL 211 & 212

by: Ixchel Buelna

BIOL 211 & 212 BIO 211/212

Ixchel Buelna
California State University, Northridge
GPA 3.16
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About this Document

Prime movers, insertion, and origin for the muscles of the human/cat.
Haig Kopooshian
Class Notes
anatomy, Kinesiology, Biology, Muscles




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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ixchel Buelna on Monday September 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 211/212 at California State University, Northridge taught by Haig Kopooshian in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Anatomy in Biology at California State University, Northridge.

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Date Created: 09/19/16
Muscle Origin Insertion Action HIP & THIGH  sartorius Flexes, abducts, and  laterally rotates thigh;  flexes knee (known as “tailors muscle”  because it helps effect crosslegged position  in which tailors are  often depicted gracilis Adducts thigh; flexes  and medially rotates  leg (especially during  walking) tensor fasciae latae Steadies the trunk on  thigh (flexes, abducts, and medially rotates  thigh) biceps femoris ^ Extends thigh and  flexes knee (laterally  rotates leg) (quadriceps  rectus femoris Tibial  Extends knee and  tuberosity and  flexes thigh at hip patella femoris: vastus medialis Tibial  Extends knee  tuberosity and  (stabilizes patella) patella four vastus intermedius Tibial  Extends knee tuberosity and  patella heads) vastus lateralis Tibial  Extends and stabilizes tuberosity and  knee patella   adductor femoris ^ Extend the thigh after  it has been drawn  forward and to adduct  the thigh adductor longus Adduct and medially  rotate and flex thigh  (posterior part of  magnus is also a  synergist in thigh  extension)   pectineus Adducts, flexes, and  medially rotates thigh semimembranosus Extends thigh; flexes  knee (medially rotates leg) semitendinosus Extends thigh; flexes  knee (medially rotates leg) gluteus maximus Gluteal  Major extensor of  tuberosity of  thigh (complex,  femur and  powerful, and most  iliotibial tract effective when thigh  is flexed, as in  climbing stairs – but  nost as in walking;  antagonist of  iliopsoas; laterally  rotates and abducts  thigh gluteus medius ^ Greater  Abducts and medially  trochanter of  rotates thigh (steadies  femur pelvis during walking) LOWER LEG gastrocnemius Calcaneus via  Plantar flexes foot  calcaneal  (when knee is  tendon extended; crosses  knee joint, thus can  flex knee when foot is dorsiflexed) soleus Calcaneus via  Plantar flexes foot (is  calcaneal  an important muscle  tendon for locomotion peroneus longus Plantar flexes and  everts foot (helps  keep foot flat on  ground) extensor digitorum  Tendon  Prime mover of toe  longus divided into  extension (dorsiflexes  four parts;  foot) inserts into  middle and  distal  phalanges of  toes 2­3 tibialis anterior By tendon into  Prime mover of  inferior surface dorsiflexion (inverts  of first  foot; supports  cuneiform and  longitudinal arch of  metatarsal 1 foot) flexor digitorum  Distal  Flexes toes; plantar  longus phalanges of  flexes and inverts foot toes 2­5 plantaris Flexes the digits and  extends the foot ABDOMEN  external oblique Flex vertebral column and compress  abdominal wall; also  aids muscles of back  in trunk rotation and  lateral flexion; used in oblique curls internal oblique As for external  oblique transverse abdominis Compresses  abdominal contents rectus abdominis Flexes and rotates  vertebral column;  increases abdominal  pressure; fixes and  depresses ribs;  stabilizes pelvis  during walking; used  in sit­ups and curls VENTRAL  pectoantebrachialis ^ THORAX  pectoralis major ^ Clavicle, sternum, Fibers  Prime mover of arm  cartilage of ribs 1­ converge to  flexion; adducts,  6 (or 7), and  insert by short  medially rotates arm;  aponeurosis of  tendon into  with arm fixed, pull   external oblique  intertubercular  chest upward (thus  muscle sulcus of  also acts in forced  humerus inspiration) pectoralis minor ^ Anterior surface  Coracoid  With ribs fixed, draws of ribs 3­5, near  process of  scapula forward ad  their costal  scapula inferiorly; with  cartilages scapula fixed, draws  rib cage superiorly xiphihumeralis ^ serratus ventralis Pull the scapula  toward the sternum scalenes Elevate ribs 1­2 (aid  in inspiration); flex  and slightly rotate  neck (cat ­ draw the  ribs anteriorly and  bend the neck  downward; thus they  are homologous to the human scalene  muscles, which  elevate the ribs and  flex the neck) external intercostals Inferior border of  Superior  Pulls ribs toward one  rib above border of rib  another to elevate rib  below cage; aids in  inspiration internal intercostals Superior border of Inferior border  Draw ribs together to  rib below of rib above depress rib cage; aid  in forced expiration;  antagonistic to  external intercostals HEAD &  masseter Zygomatic arch  Angle and  Prime mover of jaw  NECK  ad maxilla ramus of  closure and elevates  mandible mandible mylohyoid Elevates hyoid bone  and floor of mouth  during swallowing digastric By a  Open mouth and  connective  depress mandible;  tissue loop to  acting in concert,  hyoid bone elevate hyoid bone sternohyoid Manubrium and  Lower margin  Depresses larynx and  medial end of  of body od  hyoid bone if  clavicle hyoid bone mandible is fixed;  may also flex skull sternomastoid ^ Manubrium and  Lateral half of  Bilateral contraction  median raphe lambdoidal  depresses snout,  ridge and  unilateral contraction  mastoid  turns head and  portion of  depresses snout (cat  temporal bone  only) as far as the  mastoid  process SUPERFICIAL  spinotrapezius ^ Retracts (adducts) and depresses scapula SHOULDER  acromiotrapezius ^ Hold the vertebral  border of the two  scapulae together and  retracts (adducts)  them clavotrapezius  Flex the humerus spinodeltoid ^ Abduct and rotate the  humerus acromiodeltoid ^ Abduct and rotate the  humerus (clavobrachialis clavodeltoid ^ Abduct and rotate the  )  humerus levator scapulae  Pulls the scapula  ventralis toward the sternum; in cat, helps to hold the  upper edge of the  scapulae together latissimus dorsi DEEP  rhomboideus capitis ^ SHOULDER  rhomboideus Spinous process  Medial border  Pulls scapula medially of C7 and T1­T5 of scapula (retraction); stabilizes  scapula; rotates  glenoid cavity  downward subscapularis infraspinatus Lateral rotation of  humerus; helps hold  head of humerus in  glenoid cavity;  stabilizes shoulder splenius As a group, extend or  hyperextend head;  when only one side is  active, head is rotated  and bent toward the  same side supraspinatus Initiates abduction of  humerus; stabilizes  shoulder joint BRACHIUM  biceps brachii Radial  Flexion (powerful) of  tuberosity  elbow and supination  (ulna and  of forearm; “it turns  radius) the corkscrew and  pulls the cork”; weak  arm flexor brachialis Coronoid  A major flexor of  process of ulna forearm (long, lat., med.) triceps brachii Olecranon of  Powerful forearm  ulna extensor; antagonist  of forearm flexors  (brachialis and biceps  brachii) VENTRAL  flexor carpi ulnaris medial epicondyle flex manus FOREARM  palmaris longus medial epicondyle flex manus flexor carpi radialis  medial epicondyle flex manus pronator teres  medial epicondyle flex manus DORSAL  brachioradialis lateral humerus flex forearm FOREARM  extensor digitorum  lateral epicondyle extend manus communis^ extensor carpi radialis  lateral epicondyle extend manus brevis extensor carpi radialis  lateral epicondyle extend manus longus  extensor digitorum  lateral epicondyle extend manus lateralis^  extensor carpi ulnaris lateral epicondyle extend manus ^ see  comparison of  muscles: cat vs.  human page


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