BIOL 211 & 212
BIOL 211 & 212 BIO 211/212
California State University, Northridge
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ixchel Buelna on Monday September 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 211/212 at California State University, Northridge taught by Haig Kopooshian in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Anatomy in Biology at California State University, Northridge.
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Date Created: 09/19/16
Muscle Origin Insertion Action HIP & THIGH sartorius Flexes, abducts, and laterally rotates thigh; flexes knee (known as “tailors muscle” because it helps effect crosslegged position in which tailors are often depicted gracilis Adducts thigh; flexes and medially rotates leg (especially during walking) tensor fasciae latae Steadies the trunk on thigh (flexes, abducts, and medially rotates thigh) biceps femoris ^ Extends thigh and flexes knee (laterally rotates leg) (quadriceps rectus femoris Tibial Extends knee and tuberosity and flexes thigh at hip patella femoris: vastus medialis Tibial Extends knee tuberosity and (stabilizes patella) patella four vastus intermedius Tibial Extends knee tuberosity and patella heads) vastus lateralis Tibial Extends and stabilizes tuberosity and knee patella adductor femoris ^ Extend the thigh after it has been drawn forward and to adduct the thigh adductor longus Adduct and medially rotate and flex thigh (posterior part of magnus is also a synergist in thigh extension) pectineus Adducts, flexes, and medially rotates thigh semimembranosus Extends thigh; flexes knee (medially rotates leg) semitendinosus Extends thigh; flexes knee (medially rotates leg) gluteus maximus Gluteal Major extensor of tuberosity of thigh (complex, femur and powerful, and most iliotibial tract effective when thigh is flexed, as in climbing stairs – but nost as in walking; antagonist of iliopsoas; laterally rotates and abducts thigh gluteus medius ^ Greater Abducts and medially trochanter of rotates thigh (steadies femur pelvis during walking) LOWER LEG gastrocnemius Calcaneus via Plantar flexes foot calcaneal (when knee is tendon extended; crosses knee joint, thus can flex knee when foot is dorsiflexed) soleus Calcaneus via Plantar flexes foot (is calcaneal an important muscle tendon for locomotion peroneus longus Plantar flexes and everts foot (helps keep foot flat on ground) extensor digitorum Tendon Prime mover of toe longus divided into extension (dorsiflexes four parts; foot) inserts into middle and distal phalanges of toes 23 tibialis anterior By tendon into Prime mover of inferior surface dorsiflexion (inverts of first foot; supports cuneiform and longitudinal arch of metatarsal 1 foot) flexor digitorum Distal Flexes toes; plantar longus phalanges of flexes and inverts foot toes 25 plantaris Flexes the digits and extends the foot ABDOMEN external oblique Flex vertebral column and compress abdominal wall; also aids muscles of back in trunk rotation and lateral flexion; used in oblique curls internal oblique As for external oblique transverse abdominis Compresses abdominal contents rectus abdominis Flexes and rotates vertebral column; increases abdominal pressure; fixes and depresses ribs; stabilizes pelvis during walking; used in situps and curls VENTRAL pectoantebrachialis ^ THORAX pectoralis major ^ Clavicle, sternum, Fibers Prime mover of arm cartilage of ribs 1 converge to flexion; adducts, 6 (or 7), and insert by short medially rotates arm; aponeurosis of tendon into with arm fixed, pull external oblique intertubercular chest upward (thus muscle sulcus of also acts in forced humerus inspiration) pectoralis minor ^ Anterior surface Coracoid With ribs fixed, draws of ribs 35, near process of scapula forward ad their costal scapula inferiorly; with cartilages scapula fixed, draws rib cage superiorly xiphihumeralis ^ serratus ventralis Pull the scapula toward the sternum scalenes Elevate ribs 12 (aid in inspiration); flex and slightly rotate neck (cat draw the ribs anteriorly and bend the neck downward; thus they are homologous to the human scalene muscles, which elevate the ribs and flex the neck) external intercostals Inferior border of Superior Pulls ribs toward one rib above border of rib another to elevate rib below cage; aids in inspiration internal intercostals Superior border of Inferior border Draw ribs together to rib below of rib above depress rib cage; aid in forced expiration; antagonistic to external intercostals HEAD & masseter Zygomatic arch Angle and Prime mover of jaw NECK ad maxilla ramus of closure and elevates mandible mandible mylohyoid Elevates hyoid bone and floor of mouth during swallowing digastric By a Open mouth and connective depress mandible; tissue loop to acting in concert, hyoid bone elevate hyoid bone sternohyoid Manubrium and Lower margin Depresses larynx and medial end of of body od hyoid bone if clavicle hyoid bone mandible is fixed; may also flex skull sternomastoid ^ Manubrium and Lateral half of Bilateral contraction median raphe lambdoidal depresses snout, ridge and unilateral contraction mastoid turns head and portion of depresses snout (cat temporal bone only) as far as the mastoid process SUPERFICIAL spinotrapezius ^ Retracts (adducts) and depresses scapula SHOULDER acromiotrapezius ^ Hold the vertebral border of the two scapulae together and retracts (adducts) them clavotrapezius Flex the humerus spinodeltoid ^ Abduct and rotate the humerus acromiodeltoid ^ Abduct and rotate the humerus (clavobrachialis clavodeltoid ^ Abduct and rotate the ) humerus levator scapulae Pulls the scapula ventralis toward the sternum; in cat, helps to hold the upper edge of the scapulae together latissimus dorsi DEEP rhomboideus capitis ^ SHOULDER rhomboideus Spinous process Medial border Pulls scapula medially of C7 and T1T5 of scapula (retraction); stabilizes scapula; rotates glenoid cavity downward subscapularis infraspinatus Lateral rotation of humerus; helps hold head of humerus in glenoid cavity; stabilizes shoulder splenius As a group, extend or hyperextend head; when only one side is active, head is rotated and bent toward the same side supraspinatus Initiates abduction of humerus; stabilizes shoulder joint BRACHIUM biceps brachii Radial Flexion (powerful) of tuberosity elbow and supination (ulna and of forearm; “it turns radius) the corkscrew and pulls the cork”; weak arm flexor brachialis Coronoid A major flexor of process of ulna forearm (long, lat., med.) triceps brachii Olecranon of Powerful forearm ulna extensor; antagonist of forearm flexors (brachialis and biceps brachii) VENTRAL flexor carpi ulnaris medial epicondyle flex manus FOREARM palmaris longus medial epicondyle flex manus flexor carpi radialis medial epicondyle flex manus pronator teres medial epicondyle flex manus DORSAL brachioradialis lateral humerus flex forearm FOREARM extensor digitorum lateral epicondyle extend manus communis^ extensor carpi radialis lateral epicondyle extend manus brevis extensor carpi radialis lateral epicondyle extend manus longus extensor digitorum lateral epicondyle extend manus lateralis^ extensor carpi ulnaris lateral epicondyle extend manus ^ see comparison of muscles: cat vs. human page
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