New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

COMM 350 Sept 6-8

by: Mia Watson

COMM 350 Sept 6-8 COMM 350

Mia Watson
Texas A&M

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Notes for Week 2
Theories of Media Communication
Heidi Campbell
Class Notes
Theory, communication, Media, telecommunications, analysis
25 ?




Popular in Theories of Media Communication

Popular in Journalism and Mass Communications

This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mia Watson on Monday September 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to COMM 350 at Texas A&M University taught by Heidi Campbell in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Theories of Media Communication in Journalism and Mass Communications at Texas A&M University.

Similar to COMM 350 at Texas A&M

Popular in Journalism and Mass Communications


Reviews for COMM 350 Sept 6-8


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/19/16
Propaganda & Media Studies Mass Culture Theory 1.0 vs. Mass Culture Theory 2.0(table) Core ideas/values  MC1: Concern for elite culture shaping development of civilization  MC2: Concern for culture as produced and engaged by private citizens Views of society  MC1: cultivated minority vs. undiscerning mass  MC2: public opinion and voices creates, ways of public thinking Views of Media  MC1: expression of low culture  MC2: media helps public sphere Media Effects & Schools of Thought-Propaganda Studies Media Effects Starting Point: Hypodermic Needle/Magic Bullet  1920s, on of earliest mass media theories  Originated with Lasswell- Propaganda Technique in the World  Media as “magic bullet” o Passive audience seduced by media  Critiqued/disproved elections studies in 1940s by Lazarsfeld The Hypodermic Needle Theory – developed in the 1920s & 1930s; linear communication theory-directly to passive audience; passive audience; no individual difference Background  Propaganda studies – considering (& questioning) the Magic Bullet theory o Ruling elites use communication not only to maintain their power, but undermine rivals  Connection to Chicago School – social influence of press on society  Lasswell – Father of Communication Studies o Transmission Model Who?  Says What? By Which Channel? To Whom? With What Effect? (Communication|Message|Channel|Receiver|Effect) ^^^matches with above Key Ideas  Transmission Model of Communication; Scientific Study of communication process o Study the who: control analysis o Says what: content analysis o Channel-Media analysis o Who-audience analysis o What-media effects  Functionalist analysis of mass communication  Media Perform 3 social functions o Surveillance, Correlation, & Transmission Lasswell-Structures & Function of Communication in Society Lasswell’s framework explores challenges to communication o Limiting nature of technologies, censorship, ignorance, certain values such as power are distorted Social functions of Media o Surveillance reveals threats affecting value of community o Correlation of society to environment o Transmission of social inheritance – getting meaning and value; media transfer ideas and values and what’s important and why passed down to the audience Agenda Setting Theory Developed by McCombs & Shaw (1972) o Found a correlation between issues voters believed & key issues featured prominently by media o Importance: media audiences strong effected by messages media select to cover Media Effects Theory helps address… 1. Why do some media stories get more attention than others? 2. What voices get amplified by media while others are silenced, and why? Summary: Propaganda & Media Effects  Contribution: convenient model/conception of communication, draw attention to media professions/industry impact on processes  Limitation: overly positive of media, assumes media acts on society & are not themselves acted on, highly functional perspective Audiences in Media Effects  Media effects focused on media impact on audiences  Audience as a theoretical construct o Audience activity as representative of a culture  In Media Effect audiences are seen as… o Shaped/Constituted by Mass Media; Habermas says that Media creates public sphere, influenced someway either positive or negative o Strongly influenced by Media Messages Media Effects Approach  Concern with culture/media effects on audiences  Key issues: interaction with children, addiction, promoting violence  Media effects as a method (approach used to discover something) o Experimental, quantitative  Example: columbine effect – how the media effects people; behavior young white males killing people in schools o What are the different assumptions about media presented in this clip?  Negative effects, Emotions(fear), focuses on what they want to o What are the different assumptions about media audience presented in this clip?  Strongly influenced, vulnerable, passive then turned active, follow blindly o What role do you think Media effects theoretical perspective might have played in interpreting the impact/outcome of Columbine?  Media is powerful and influences people, puts focus on one thing to differ the attention David Gauntlett: 10 Things wrong with media effects Theory Presentation should include:  Background/History – who drafted this theory, key theoretical approach, why/what purpose  Model or Description w/ Explanation  Analysis of Reading- key arguments & ideas about theory  Brief illustration – to clarify discussion of theory  Summary & Meme Key Terms on Mass Culture  Modernity – developments associated with shift from communal agrarian pre-modern too individualistic, rational-based modern culture  Mass culture – based on mass production and standardization the debases culture  Minority culture – elite, high culture separate from mass produced culture  Reproduction – re-creation & transmission of art & object of tradition for mass public  Aura – originality & authenticity in a work of art that has not been reproduced Review of Mass Culture Theory  Concerned with political questions of mass society & culture o Media seen as expression low culture Mass Culture Redux & The Public Sphere Evolving view of Culture in Theory  Culture as… o Minority culture- elite, high culture separate form mass produced culture o Mass culture – based on mass production & standardization the debases culture o Culture=art, that which expresses aura & technique/expertise; media is NOT art, it is reproduction o Culture as that which is produced in public sphere  Culture & the Public Sphere o Habermas-Frankfurt School o Critique/Extension of Mass Culture Theory  Recognizing shift of intellectuals (new mass culture) supplanting the influence of the Bourgeois/Middle Class (minority culture)  Public Sphere – private citizens engaged in critical political, public debate form culture  PS as a concept, theory, ideal and a discourse  When people get together and are able to debate through culture  Media studies focus on concept and theory  Principals of public sphere point towards a “structural transformation” over time through public discourse o What is the connection between Marxism & the idea of the public sphere?  Marxism – dominant culture & power concerned, affirming power culture  Culture was defined as this high elite, religion, separation between church and state Public Sphere: Context o Public sphere is tied to media, politics, & public disclosure  Media helps create public sphere  Highlights relationship between media, the state, business & ordinary people towards a democratic society o Public Sphere involves:  Identifies the range of voices in public debates  Frames public opinion, ways of public thinking  Yet media also promotes “dumbing down “tendencies Habermas – The Public Sphere 1. What is “the public” & public sphere and where does it exist? (300-302) a. Public Sphere – active citizens participating; people come together as a public body when they step out of private & act as citizens; Public – group of individuals, crowd, an institution where individuals have rights and responsibility; Majority culture=everyone, people have to buy into what they are talking about(content) 2. What is the relationship between the republic sphere and the state? (302- 304) a. Minority culture as a group of people who has a responsibility in relationship, republic sphere and the state don’t mix, partnership, public sphere separate from state-speaks to power and role of public opinion 3. What is the difference between “bourgeois public sphere” & “representative publicity”? (304) a. Representative publicity as public representations of power; bourgeois creates new ways of transforming power 4. In what ways does the press mediate public opinion? (312-314) a. They only put what they agree with and leaving out things they don’t, channeling and putting what people want to hear instead of the entirety of the media Yet eventually we see shift from public sphere form “Culture Creating” to “Culture Consuming” – more options to consume than engage in contributing to culture, people make decisions on how they use the media Summary  Public sphere has relevance in contemporary media debates/discourse  P.S as yard stick to judge existing communication systems, notions of citizenship  P.S drawn from Mass Culture approach that affirms the masses role in society


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Anthony Lee UC Santa Barbara

"I bought an awesome study guide, which helped me get an A in my Math 34B class this quarter!"

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.